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There are several classifications of criminal acts. In order to determine a person’s guilt and punishment, it is essential to understand the felonies committed and the circumstances surrounding them. Crime is, therefore, divided into crime against persons, property, and public order. Some of the criminal offences that might be committed by individuals include arson, first-degree murder, kidnapping, robbery, forgery, and disorderly conduct. The above crimes can be can be classified into different divisions depending on the situation.
Crime against Property: Forgery
The first category of crime is against property. This involves the several offenses, such as, larceny, wrong pretenses, embezzlement, forgery and uttering, computer crime, identity theft, carjacking, robbery, extortion, and receiving stolen property. Forgery entails a situation in which an individual creates a false document or modifies a material in order to deceive others. On the other hand, uttering involves the circulation or use of a forged material in order to gain something. Moreover, forgery concerns the only documents that are legally significant.
According to the Model Penal Code, some of the documents that can be forged include currency, checks, passports, deeds, tickets, visas, licenses, and work or residential permits. It states that anybody is guilty of forgery if he has falsely altered a document with intent of defraud. There are certain legal concepts that are instrumental in the establishment and study of crime. One of the concepts is Actus Reus, which in forgery refers to false identification or writing. This implies that the act of materially or falsely altering a certain document without any permission. On contrast, the concept of Mens Rea involves the requirement of the act to defraud. Nevertheless, this should not be directed towards a particular person (Bassiouni, 2011).
Forgery is exemplified by a case Peter Morat falely changed his documents in order to establish a sawmill from in Madison County. Here, Morat used the false name Herkimer Precut, Inc. by paying the defendant a 20% interest from the business. In the statutory standards of South Carolina, forgery crimes are punishable with a charge of more than $1000 or imprisonment of at most one year (Bassiouni, 2011).
Crime against Persons: First Degree Murder
Crimes against persons involve those ones that are violent, physical, and high profile. Some of these crimes include child abuse, rape, murder, domestic violence, battery, and assault. First degree is a criminal act under homicide that entails a willfully planned and premeditated act to commit murder another. For instance, Dominic finds his wife Mary in the house with another man; Brian in bed. After three days, Dominic waits for Brian in his gate and kills him there and then. This is an excellent example of a skillfully and willfully planned murder; hence, it falls on the First Degree Murder (Braham, 2004).
In the first-degree murder, the concept of Actus Reus implies the external element of the aim of the criminal act. In this case, Acts Reus entails the cause of death by the offender on the victim. On contrast, Mens Rea that is the act of the guilty mind. Therefore, this concept’s elements are that the crime was committed knowingly, negligently, and purposely. According to the federal statutes, a person who is found guilty of the capital felony or first-degree murder is liable to life imprisonment without parole (Lippman, 2009).
Crime against Public Order: Disorderly Conduct
Disorderly conduct is another criminal act that falls on the category of crime against the public order. The laws on the category were introduced in order to ensure that the public enjoy peace by protecting individuals for harassment or alarming in public. Some of the offenses that violate laws of public order include riot, inciting, animal cruelty, false alarms, and disorderly behavior (Samaha, 2007). Disorderly conduct is referred to any behavior that disturbs peace in public, and it happens in various forms.
In the Ohio Revised Code (2917.11, 2002), no one has the right to inconvenience, annoy, or alarm another by behaving in a certain way. Some of the disorderly behaviors include making unreasonable or an abusive language; turbulent behavior or fighting; taunting or insulting another individual in provocation of violence; creation of offensive or harmful conditions for others; and barring others from their right-of-way. Moreover, disorderly conduct law has provisions for the voluntarily intoxicated persons (Samaha, 2007).
In terms of disorderly conduct, the concept of Actus Reus entails the external intention of the act, which is to cause disturbance. On the other hand, the Mens Rea involves four levels of disorderly conduct that include knowingly, purposely, negligently, and recklessly. For instance, Jason Smith gets out of a bar and starts driving and gets into the car. On his way home, he drives recklessly so that he hits a student, who was crossing the road, at the same time making deafening noises in the neighborhood. Smith’s criminal act is disorderly conduct. The court of law had jurisdiction to charge him on careless and negligent behavior that disturbed and injured the public (Samaha, 2007).
Lastly, the seriousness of crimes depends on their categories. For instance, in this case, forgery is less serious than murder because the latter involves loss of life, while the former entails the loss of property. Therefore, forgery and murder are totally distinct crimes that should be punished differently. First-degree murder is more serious than the second and third degrees. Moreover, the crime against persons is more serious than that against a property and public order. As a result, these acts are punishable in different ways according to the standing statutes.
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