Society is encompassed by different aspects that surround it; these are the issues that control society. Justice systems are ways and means that the society is kept under control so as to deter or mitigate crime. Without such systems crime in society can escalate to high levels meaning that it will be impossible to control it. It aims to sanction and punish those who engage in crime and protect others against abuse. This system acts like a double edge sword since it also protects those accused of crime. These practices and deed give the social norms which are specific to behavioral standards and describe how people will act. Academic research is a very important aspect since it acts as an eye opener to how the society works and functions (Akers, 2000). Many studies have been conducted in society to establish various aspects especially how they relate in different levels. In understanding society, then scholars can understand the relationship between crime and social control.
For instance, in society there are different norms and if they are deviated from an individual is seen to commit a crime. Deviance is the first step to starting a crime since it is the failure to be conventional to the norms; however this may not be standard since certain norms may not be norms in another society. Deviance can also be considered as criminal in various societies, while in others it is just breaking social norms. It is therefore the obligation of the justice system to ensure there is administration of justice in the society (Jensen, & Rojek, 1998). Indeed, academic research can only help us more to understand the actions, beliefs and conditions in the society. For example, academicians have helped in identifying theories in crime and the types of crime such as blue-collar crime, juvenile, organized, corporate, political, state, victimless, white-collar and public order crime.
The social disorganization theory is a theory developed by academician to understand social crime. This theory attributes crime variation and time delinquency in different territories to the lack or inadequate communal institutions. These include, school, family, local government and church. It is also attributed to lack of communal association that ensured people cooperated at all times. In understanding the society the academician are able to attribute the causes of crime to a break down in the social system and the basic units of society (Paternoster, & Bachman, 2001).
In any given organized society the relationships are mainly coordinated by the community representatives of the institution. They will be involved in ensuring the society stays safe and in respect and the heads of the institutions must be respected. The pastors, fathers’ school heads, local elders all have a voice in what happens in the organized society (Akers, 2000). This is the bond that keeps the society together and if this bond is broken there is a very high likelihood of instigating crime. Such are the principles that scholars help understand and reflect on crime and social control. Since over time, there is always need to keep the communities together so as to maintain the levels of crime which also extends to larger communities such as towns and countries (Paternoster, & Bachman, 2001). The concepts developed to explain crime help in reducing crime given that they help understand the root cause of the problem and solve it effectively.
The disorganization of society theory has been mainly applied and tested in different countries where major concerns of social disintegration has been cited as rapid growth. This is seen as a great force to disorganize and disintegrate society and social rule since large populations are uncontrollable. Scholars such as Edwin Sutherland has been actively involved in understanding society and crime especially through his theory of criminal behavior and the description of concepts that are help individuals understand systematic criminal behavior. Studies done on crime rates in society are also very essential since they paint the picture of how society is affected and how the authorities have lost control (Jensen, & Rojek, 1998).
The community structure is also studied which helps know in which social structures have higher rates of crime. They measure the self reported offenders, victimization and disorganization of society; in addition to local networks of friendship, teenage groups present and the participation of society in organizations. Other factors that are studied are the economic status, residential mobility, ethnic heterogeneity, urbanization and family disruption. More studies focus on the economic status as a major cause of crime since in areas of low income areas are seen to have high crime rate and low social control. Most crime such as drug peddling, robbery and capital crimes are likely to be reported in areas where people are poor. This is an indication of the lack of control in these areas (Paternoster, & Bachman, 2001).
The social control theory developed by Travis Hirschi is one of the theories that dominated the 20th century research where crime has also had a paradigm shift. The study focuses on the recognition of conventional moral beliefs and standards, approval of goals that are conventional, and the participation in activities that are conventional. In these factors then the social bond is established especially between the society and the youth who are the major perpetrators of crime (Akers, 2000).
Through the various studies and theories then there is certainty that academic research has contributed to the understanding of the relationship between crime and social control. The society is one unit that is very intact and once it is broken there will be the consequences that are depicted in crime and hence social control is lost.
Academic research does contribute in understanding the relationship between Crime and social control. The program in sociology of crime is one of the studies which are done to be able to understand the relationship between crime and social control. This is a program which is used to provide training on impressive training in the three main areas which include etiology of crime, delinquency and deviance, how the society responds to crime and contest of crime in the society. The areas of crime being studied are diversified in relation to race, gender and social crime. Different social classes have different levels of crime and they are handled differently.
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Hence the shapes of crime also dictate on the measures which are put in place to mitigate such crime and control it in the society. However, social structures of the society also determine on how the crime is committed and the means which would be used to mitigate them. Therefore, social control efforts are very necessary in relation to creation of awareness and training of the society on how they can be able to improve on their security measures.
Deviance and delinquency which also know as etiology of crime is essential in understanding how crime relate to social integration and control in a society. The study is done to establish the causes of crime especially the individual levels of crime and how it is influenced by the social status of the person who is committing the crime (Young, 2001). The Study is done with the international setup perspective in mind on how crimes which are committed are related to the social setup of the criminal such in ration to race, gender, class or their mental health problem.
The structural context of crime is also a factor to be considered. The study is used to emphasize on social inequality and how it contribute to crime. Social inequality is one of the major causes of crime as some social classes might perceive to be disadvantaged in supply of goods, services and other resources with that in mind they would result to theft and other form of crime with an aim to be equal in the society. Another aspect is the community social organization, in community there are how social setup develop over years and those of the same social status tend to be more inclined to each other. Hence, making different social organization groupings in a community, this eventually develops some form of crime within the social organizations or inter-organizational crime of people of one social organization being criminals or a security threat to another setup.
Social setup in school and peer groupings also have main effect on how crime is committed. Students live together for years and they influence each other a lot than in any other social setup (Rushton, 1995). It’s during schooling years when someone buildups their traits, mannerism and values. Therefore, when students are in the wrong peer group which would influence someone to be a criminal it is very easy to join the criminals and it won’t be easy to change the characters of such a criminal who develops aspects of criminology when they are young. However, parenting role and family setup are also very influential on development of criminality aspects. For example parents who are strict and are good disciplinarians are able to bring up children’s who are well behaved and it’s not easy to indulge them in criminal life even when they are amongst other children / Students who are a criminal.
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The study of neighborhood, criminal rate and the nature of crime would be able to bring up a good relationship on how social controls are related to the crime being done. Because social mechanisms in a community has the main control over crimes which are committed in relation to how the social structures are set in relation to education and accessibility to resources.
Societal responses to crime and social constructions of a community are the basis which also contributes to level of criminality within the society. Each society has its own mechanism of development of laws or security policies and they are likewise implemented differently. Laxity in law or policies development or poor implementation of the same would also increase level of criminality as they are sure of the disciplinary measures which would be taken against them (Reasons, 1973). In the states or settlement areas which are having strict laws and they are fully implemented there are few cases of insecurity or crime because such laws changes the social setup of the community and they tend to observe the law as they are aware of the severe consequences if law and order is not maintained. Therefore, well formulated laws / Policies and their implementations are good measures of changing the society setup with an aim of reducing crime. Therefore, means which are used to punish those who are unlawful makes them to reform and even deter others from committing the same crime.
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Good understanding of the origin of crime theories would also provide a better understanding on how social control relate to crime. Criminal activities in the society develop over time and they keep on changing as the society ways of life changes over the years. Therefore, for a better understanding a crime it is advisable to understand how that crime started and how it developed to what it is today. With such understanding someone will be able to relate on the reason why certain forms of crime are more prevalent in some areas while they are not in others. By understating how the crime stated and developed over the years in the society structure it is easy to control it by addressing the social structures which are supporting such crimes with an aim of reducing or eradicating it completely.
The functions of social control and utilization are having effects which influences on crime rate and the type of crimes being done. The formal social controls are dictated by several factors which are the main contributors of crime rate (Oliver, 2008). The social controls in place to be considered are; population composition, culture and believes, inequality and social classes. For example a densely populated social setup would have high rate of criminality than spicily populated areas this would mainly be contributed to competition of scarce resources which result to high level of criminals.
Culture and believes are also factors to be considered, it is evident that most religions do not support criminal activities unless it is beneficial to their faith. Religion is one of the factors which determine the social control structures as it has doctrines which are more likely to condemn crime activities. Therefore, in areas which most people are religious there is aspect of declined criminal activities as the community has values which govern them (Muncie, 1999). Religion teachings are passed over from generations to generations over time therefore the values of taught by the religion become part of their cultural practice.
Gender also relate to crime as there are those crime which are done by either gender which are not done by the other. Naturally women are considered to be more cautions on uploading to the values of the society than it’s the case with men who in most cases are the one who are involved in crime. Such behavioral characteristic of ladies as opposed to men is a factor which proves on how social control in relation to gender affects or relate to criminal activities.
A society has many aspects which form it and each has its effect in relation to crime for example; in a society there are the underclasses. These are people who feel that they are disadvantaged and in most cases they are not able to get a rightful share of resources in a community and they result to steal or being criminals. While there are those who are peace keepers and problematic groups of people, peace keepers are like the region leaders and state administrators who implements policies and laws which govern how a society co-exists (Matthews, 2002). While the problematic could be outlaws gang activities that are in an organized gang with an aim of carrying on their criminal activities as a group. Community disorganization which would be brought by poor administration and state of lawlessness develops social structures which are not controlled hence rate of crime is relatively high as compared to well organized social structures.
Rate of employment in a society also contributes to state of crime and criminal activities. Employments are the main source of earning especially for the social structures which resides in urban sectors. Lack of employment makes most of such people to be criminals as they seek for means of survival. Stability of families also contribute to the formation of social structures in areas where we have less stable families of single parents the children being brought up in such families mostly do not get proper parenting and guidance and might end being criminals as opposed to those who are brought up in relatively stable family setup (Gary, 2003).
Level of Native and Immigrants also affect the society structure and in areas which immigrants would be discriminated and they are in large numbers they become more susceptible to poverty as they are not able to access services and goods as the natives this would contribute to increase of crime and insecurity (Bursik, 1988). Use of illicit drugs and its availability and affordability also affect the nature and levels of crime in such areas. In areas which the administrators are not keen on distribution and sales of illicit drugs contributes to development of social structures which are prone to be criminals as consumption of such drugs contribute to deterioration of mental health of the society and they result to being criminals.
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