Collective responsibility is a concept that each nation’s security depends upon all other nations and that peace is universal and indivisible. Wilson’s vision of “new world order” shaped the U.S. foreign policy as he tried to abandon earlier policy of neutrality in favor of collective policy. At the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, Wilson drafted the convent for the postwar league and ensured that it conformed to his vision of the world order. Back at home, republican senators were opposed to their president’s ideas that the U.S. could control the league despite the fact that they had supported the 1917 war in Germany. Wilson became an earnest and a big advocate of the League of Nations convent in his late days of presidency. After WWI, republicans largely shunned the league in Geneva and rejected forceful changes in political and territorial independence of nations. WWI was seen as an accidental war WWII was seen as an aggression war. The Versailles Treaty did not solve Germany’s problems. But in WWII, President Roosevelt revived Wilson’s idea and while it attempted neutrality against aggression by Germany, Italy and Japan against their neighbors. In 1938 when the Munich agreement failed to procure peace, the U.S. decided that it cannot protect itself security alone and with alliance with other partners, the UN was formed. The league achieved much between 1924 and 1930 and aggessive countries like Germany promised not to violate its borders with France and Belgium of course to which Germany did not honor. This aggression is what gave forth to the WWII.
Summary of the New York Times Woodrow Wilson
As the U.S. president, Wilson loved legislative leadership. His re-election was based on foreign policy. After his elections in 1912, he did not want to deal with foreign problems but as fate could have it, he was to be involved in the violent Mexico revolution. At first he tried to intervene but later settled on a policy of leaving the country work out its own problems. This served him a good start in WWI in 1914, at the same time his first wife died. In 1915, a German submarine sank a ship which had more than 100 Americans on board and this caused a diplomatic tussle between the two countries. When Germany in 1917 unleashed their submarines against merchant shipping, he was forced to wage war. Wilson seemed to depart from his earlier thinking of conducting international relations and preventing war through a league of nations. In spite of his peace efforts, he waged a full war for one and half years. He exercised direct control in foreign affairs and seized command of allied war aims with his fourteen point address in 1918. In the address, he laid a picture of healing and the non-punitive program and the address helped in shortening the war which ended in November 11, 1918. He later weent to Paris for a peace conference towards the end of 1918 but later became ill in 1919 while in stressful negotiations with British, Italy and French leaders.
Comparing the two articles
The main idea the two articles are addressing is Wilson’s foreign policy and stance on war. The first article seems to suggest that Wilson loved collective policy as opposed to neutrality. But this is somehow contradicted by the second article that talks about Wilson leaving Mexico to chart its own course rather than meddling in its internal wars. Both the above summaries suggest though that Wilson had favorable view of League of Nations despite the fact that it failed to stop aggression in the 1930s. Wilson went to Paris for two months to assist negotiations on the Versailles Treat and the league covenant. Wilson also did recognize the seed war and it was the league’s impotence that caused WWII and the league lacked mechanisms to insure collective responsibility on security. The other issue is what caused WWII. The first article suggests that WWII was caused by failure of collective security to address Germany’s aggressiveness, this is despite the fact that the second article shows that Wilson spent one and half months away from home trying to court peace in with some Europe countries after his fourteen address shortened the 1918 war with Germany.
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