The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation involving the United States and the Soviet Union in October 1962. It is also known as the October crisis in Cuba. This happened after the Cuba’s Bay of Pigs Invasion which resulted to USSR’s support by the then Cuban regime. This was a time when the world came closest to a nuclear war (Paul, 2006). The then Soviet Union’s premier had clandestinely decided to set up their ballistic missile weapons in Cuba which is a few miles away from the United States’ coast which were discovered by the US. Reconnaissance flights after they sited the concealed erection of missile initiation sites when the then President of the United States of America John F. Kennedy publicly criticized the USSR’s actions (Roger, 1996). The lives of Americans, Soviets and Cubans depended on the decisions reached upon by the then President of the United States of America and the Premier of the Soviet Union (Roger, 1996). The Soviet Union Commanders in Cuba were authorized to use nuclear weapons and power to defend the Island if the United States army invaded them.
The setting up of missile launching sites in Cuba by the Soviet Union was highly criticized by the government of the United States of America (Paul, 2006). The United States of America then put up a naval barrier on Cuba blocking any intrusion into its soil and affirmed that any missile launched from Cuba aiming the United States soil would necessitate a full-scale retaliatory assault by the United States against the USSR(Roger, 1996). After the naval blockade, the United States decided that military quarantine of Cuba will be enough and announced that it wouldn’t sanction launch of missile weapons from Cuba and so demanded the Soviet union to demolish all the missile launch sites that were completed or under construction and to clear up all missiles and weapons out of Cuba (Paul, 2006).
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The Soviet Union premier officially wrote a letter to the then President of the United States explaining what propelled him into the abyss of a huge nuclear war. The Soviet Union then publicly refused the very idea of ceasefire but secretary contacted the United States government and initiated an offer to ceasefire (Robert, 1988). The Soviet’s ships carrying missiles destined for Cuba were diverted back to Russia. On October 28, 1962, President John F. Kennedy and Soviet union Premier Nikita Khrushchev under mediation by United Nations Secretary General U Thant came to an agreement of truce and the Soviet union premier agreed to withdraw the missiles and destroy the launch sites in Cuba and return them to the Soviet Union under supervision by the United Nations for the sake of transparency and in exchange the United States had to agree to never assault Cuba (Robert, 1988).
The United States ended its naval blockade on November 20, and later in the year the Soviet Union finished removing all the missiles, bombers and support equipment which were loaded into ships and shipped back to Russia (Paul, 2006). This marked the end of the quarantine and a secret agreement that led to the deactivation of all us built weapons deployed in Europe by September 1963 (Paul, 2006). The Cuban Missile Crisis led to the conception of the Hotline Agreement which brought about the creation of a system that enables a direct communications linkage between Washington, D.C. and Moscow for use by the leaders of Russia and the United States.
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