During the Second Industrial Revolution, many changes occurred in mining, transport, technology, mining and agriculture. However, there is one area on governance and the effects caused by Second Industrial Revolution on such matters that are looked at by Perry et al (2008) in Chapter 26 of this book titled, “Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society.” Countries like the France, Germany, Britain, Japan and the United States of America began taking other shapes of based on the wealth they accumulated and the status of their economy. New technologies like electricity were crucial and changed people’s way of life. All these as put forward by Perry et al (2008) apparently affected politics and the way people were governed. Great Britain was considered as one of the driving forces of the industrial revolution owing to its natural resources of waterpower, coal and iron. Such a position gave Britain great control over trade on seas which offered a lot of raw materials.
Britain therefore had good systems of banking and stability in politics providing a good climate for emerging ideas. The philosophy of Laissez Faire was in existence in England founded on the wealth of nations as explained by Adam Smith in 1776. England was able to develop a free market factored in by demand and supply. Great Britain had previously no high industry tariffs as in other countries of Europe. Initially, the government did not interfere neither was there any industry regulation. New business outlets were brought up by entrepreneurs. A stable government promoted a strong economy which later translated into more inventions and later factories established from home industry.
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The French apparently matched these industrial revolutions though different at some point on matters of romanticism, nationalism and liberalism. Revolution in France came to being owing to the traditional rules in France that guided the people’s way of life. The second industrial revolution thus kept the rich happier while the poor and the vulnerable were down to earth. The rent on farms was too high and those who rented hardly made any progress. This was all attributed to the conservative French rules. Failure of crops on farms meant that the farmer could not pay the lord. People thus moved to big towns away from their farms. Such frustration led to French Revolution. Citizens of the land desired better pay, a leader with their interest at heart and better work conditions. Germany on the other hand had what they needed to fully industrialize. However, they were let down by social and political obstacles. The power and greed for wealth made Germany and even Italy exist in separate states. This was all founded on economic matters. Only a minority managed much of the land. The government intervened later on and made it possible for land and minerals industrial development. Prussia state managed to arrange agreements amongst the treaties of Germany on similar tariffs.
Coal, iron, textiles and oils industries boomed the moment French and German started to make investment in them. Much growth was experienced with the railway expansions in Russia. While the industry of Russia was enlarged, more workers were needed. Due to bad working conditions, workers could organize strikes and therefore the government intervened to soothe them by setting a maximum of eleven and a half hours. Russia went through socio-economic changes at this time. Governments tried to control the patriarchal family domination. As a result, divorce and abortion did not need court processes and procedures. In conclusion, there was a struggle for wealth and could be seen all over. The governments made abrupt interventions where necessary. Materialism and atheism was founded which formed the grounds for Marxist theory. Organized religion was greatly opposed. In actual fact, the second industrial revolution did not only come a long with good tidings but also with a number of challenges that needed to be addressed before all could enjoy the developments brought up by the revolution.
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