Support phones:
homeReloadContact Us
Home About Us Our Guarantees Beware Our Prices Discounts Order Now Blog FAQ Testimonials Sample essays Contact Us
main menu
About Us
Our Guarantees
How it works
Our Prices
Order Now
Testimonials (1034)
Sample essays
Contact Us
you save
Type of assignment:
Writer level:
Cost per page:
Total without discount:
sample essays
Analytical Essays
Application Essays
Architecture Essays
Argument Essays
Argumentative Essays
Art Essays
Business Essays
Case Studies Essays
Communication and Media Essays
Comparison Essays
Computer Technologies Essays
Controversial Essays
Critical Essays
Definition Essays
Economics Essays
Education Essays
Geography Essays
History Essays
Justice Essays
Law Essays
Life Essays
Literature Essays
Marketing Essays
Medicine Essays
Nursing Essays
Personal Essays
Philosophy Essays
Political science Essays
Politics Essays
Psychology Essays
Religion Essays
Sociology Essays
Technology Essays
Term Papers Essays
World Literature Essays

← Building an EmpireAmerican entry into WWI →
Live Chat

Custom Polynesian and Chumash Contacts essay paper sample

Buy custom Polynesian and Chumash Contacts essay paper cheap

Contrary to what many people believe, America might have been discovered by Polynesians long before Christopher Columbus made his voyages to the continent. Researchers have been working hard to establish some factual information to back up the theory. As a result, the topic on discovery of America has turned out controversial in the two main areas. First, researchers wanted to find out whether there was a pre-Columbian introduction of chicken to the continent, and also whether the relationship between the Polynesians and South Americans can be established archeologically. This paper seeks to shed light on this issue by finding out who really discovered America.

Archeologists discovered chicken bones in Chile and applied carbon dating as well as DNA methods of analysis to discover their origins (Hirst, 2011, para. 1). Surprisingly, their findings matched the available ancient information on Polynesian chicken from Hawaii, Tonga and the surrounding areas. This information implied that chickens had been introduced to America a century before Europeans made their visit to the continent. It also also cast some doubt on the widely accepted belief that the birds were introduced into the continent by European voyagers.

There are various theories that try to explain the presence of chickens in America in the pre-Columbian period (Hirst, 2011, para. 1). For instance, most scholars believe that they were introduced by Spanish or Portuguese, and then they spread through natural dispersal method.  Nevertheless, most of these theories have major flaws which make them unreliable. The assumption that chickens were introduced from Polynesia is supported by both carbon dating and DNA test methods. As a result, it is highly possible that this theory holds true.

Another strong argument that supports the fact that Polynesians were the first people to discover America is based on the use of canoes and fish hooks. The Chumash people made plank canoes using hand-hewn planks joined and cemented with asphaltum adhesive (Edgar, 2011 para. 2). Their length was 25 feet and they were used for fishing and trading purposes. The Chumash formed one of the largest tribes in California. They are believed to have learnt how to make the plank canoes from Polynesians where the practice was widespread (Edgar, 2005 p. 3).

Polynesian canoes were longer, ranging between 36 to 60 feet in length. They sailed in huge double hauled canoes. Use of carbon dating shows the dates of these canoes to range from 800 to 1200 AD, which falls under the pre-Columbian period (Davidson, 2005, para. 2). Therefore, the Chumash people must have learnt the practice from Polynesians. Also, the use of fish hooks by the Chumash people is believed to have been borrowed from the Polynesians after their contact. The hooks were dated to around 900 AD, which was many centuries before the arrival of Christopher Columbus (Hirst, 2011, para. 5). There were a lot of similarities, especially in the way both cultures referred to the tool by the same name. The tool had also similar design and many other mysterious resemblances indicating a possible link between the two prehistoric communities.

Furthermore, there were evaluations of linguistic evidence that confirmed a belief in pre-historic Polynesian-American contact. There is some consonantal connection between Polynesian and South American languages which further affirms this belief (Klar, 2005 p. 394). Similarities in some consonantal sounds certainly prove that the Polynesians must have visited the continent so that the terminologies could have been adopted by the Chumashan culture.  The Chumashan name for a plank canoe was ‘tomolo’, which is believed to have been borrowed from the Polynesian source. According to linguistics and other researchers, every syllable of the Chumashan relates to another syllable in the Proto-Central Eastern Polynesian based lexical term (Klar, 2005 p. 394). However, this does not imply that the two languages have a general and genetic relationship, but instead there is some resemblance in the usage of various words.

Besides the use of ‘tomolo’, there are other words, such as ‘kumara’ (sweet potato), which is a proof of an earlier contact between Polynesians and Americans. Sweet potatoes were mainly grown by the Polynesians. After their samples in Polynesia were investigated, it was discovered that they had quite a lot of similarities with those grown in Ecuador (Ladefoged, 2005 para. 2). The word ‘kumara’ means sweet potato in both Polynesian and South American cultures. It is, therefore, believed that domestication of the crop was a common practice between people in South America and Polynesia (Ladefoged, 2005 para. 2).  Therefore, linguistic evidence provides a sure proof of a direct contact between Polynesians and Americans long before Europeans made their visit to the continent (Klar, 2005 p. 394).

The paper has established that besides the voyages made by Christopher Columbus in his exploration of the American continent, there were other pre-Columbian visits made by Polynesians. All the above discussed assumptions point to one major theory: Polynesians discovered America before Europeans made their first voyage to the continent. Some of these theories are still being processed and therefore, there is still more research to be done in the future to ascertain these claims. 

Buy custom Polynesian and Chumash Contacts essay paper cheap

Buy essayHesitating

Related essays

  1. American entry into WWI
  2. The New Deal's Impact on Society
  3. Building an Empire
  4. Slavery in America
order now
chat off
our advantages
300 Words per page
12 pt Times New Roman double-spaced
MBA and PhD Writers
Relevant and up-to-date sources
US Writers
100% Confidentiality Guarantee
24/7 Support
24/7 Live Chat
Direct Contact with Writer
Flexible Discount Program
ANY Difficulty Level!
current status
6 chat / phone operators online at the moment
859 writers active
19457 writers in the database
5 new writers passed exam this week
21768 pages written
6801453 words written
8.5 out of 10 current average quality score
97% satisfied customers
current status
Blog categories
Academic Assistance
Analysis Essay
College Essay
Student's Life
Writing an Essay
Writing Helper
current status
Latest posts
Four Surprising Meanings of the Word ‘Bachelor’
4 Ways to Train both Reading and Writing at the Same Time
How to Write a Classification Essay Well?
Basic Essay Types All Students Must Know
How to Take Control over Your Life
current status

  • Paypal