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The protesters goals and the problems faced by protesters when they tried to achieve the goals
In Montgomery Alabama blacks were not allowed to sit in front of buses. The African American made up a bulk of the passengers and boycotted using the buses and by that it crippled the mass transit in Montgomery system. There was segregation of black American s by the white and there may aim was to ensure that equality is observed and each and every person to be treated with respect amongst the communities whether black or white (Clay, 1981). The south was very poor because of the rigid segregation of Africans Americans who were politically and economically powerless.
The other goals they wanted to achieve were to stop the white Americans from oppressing the African American domestic workers who were named the Bronx slave Market. The Africans Americans were mistreated at there work stations by the white compatriots, thus the exploitation of the unique black American women sexually. Racial factor also came up with African Americans who were judged according to their skin color and not allowed to attend to some cores. All this was a hinder in development of African Americans who fought hard to end them (Clay, 1981).
The African Americans were poor for they were discriminated all round. There children were not allowed to mix or attend the same schools with the white Americans, through these there was inequality in quality of education offered in the institutions. They ended up missing job opportunities due to the poor skills compared to the white Americans who attended schools with standard facilities getting quality skills which secure them jobs. In the job market the African American is termed in-competitive leading to lack of jobs which increase the poverty level tying them to domestic service. To abolish this kind of discrimination was another goal they fought to achieve (Langston, 1962).
They faced dehumanizing experience ridicule from the respectable wage earners and also fraudulent from employment agencies which bilked workers wages and their main objective here was to economic justice to through political struggles. Most jobs were central to the critics of racism, sexism and classism which made struggle against them indispensable in dismantling of economic oppression which aimed in ending all these. They were arrested and prosecuted when protesting and others were even killed during the protests by the police (Langston, 1962).
With the protests in Birmingham, Alabama (Spring 1963), the Civil Rights Movement “surged to life”
What were King’s goals in Birmingham?
In 1960s Birmingham, Alabama was very risky whereby both blacks and whites lost their lives through bombs which could explode anytime in streets. The dozen of bombings were committed by unknown terrorists. The black homes were usually the targets of the explosions in that the victims are dealt with after committing an offense against the white supremacy rigid structure (Levering, 1978).
Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth of Birmingham went ahead inviting king and SCLC to the city for it had some eighteen unsolved bombings in the black neighborhoods and vicious mob attack on freedom riders on 1961s mother’s day. When the king and SCLC met project C was launched and by 1963 the staging of SCLC sit-ins released a Manifesto for Birmingham but it was largely ignored by the reporters but it brought much impact. The king was arrested after long debate on Project C plan on Good Friday. His plan was to change Birmingham and he wrote in a letter from the jail (Levering, 1978).
After the king was released on April 20th SCLC had started plan D. they used children in this plans to pass their voices through demonstration. Through that the demonstration escalated for the jails were filled and the police after fighting with children’s for long did not know what to do instead went ahead to back down. Finally Birmingham communities in business agreed to integrate lunch and hire blacks fearing the damage to the downtown stores over objections of the city officials and the king emerged victorious (Levering, 1978).
What challenges did activists confront in achieving these goals?
In the beginning of April, small groups of the activists were launching counters and they were arrested repeatedly, 40 people being marched daily to city hall and being arrested every time. In addition to that, continuation of protests and the arrests attracted attention from national media leading to injunction of city officials in few days making all racial demonstrations illegal(Doug, 1982).
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The protesters underwent oppression from police who charged into the park with their batons and whipped anyone within their reach; the bystanders were also included in the beating. The police went ahead releasing dogs that bite and injured other activists with protesters.
The activists were also oppressed by being denied rights to demonstrate and exercise their political rights and other rights e.g. social life of converging in meetings. The defiant activists were put under bars and separated from the city people or protesters.
In what ways was Birmingham a stunning success for the movement
People worked together and sacrificed more for the change they fought for. They used their most nonviolent weapon which was powerful as expected and also the most demanding organization. People started working together as unity is power, the units can be political, economic or laboring units (Doug, 1982). They managed to convince and organize people into permanent groups through civil rights movement that protected their own interest producing change on their behalf.
People started living together where each developed his or her own job with houses to live in. their children also received much education which was quality with no discrimination between them and the white children. They also accomplished through suffering for others and ensured rejection of materialism, racism and violence which had characterized the western civilization through working towards a world of cooperation, peace and brotherhood.
The Watts riot in Los Angeles, 1966. In 1966, King carried his movement from southern states into the northern city of Chicago. In what ways did the problems of northern-west coast, urban black Americans differ from those in the South?
Personalities are one of the differences between them in that many southerners exude warmth with hospitality for the religion became famous unlike northerners who are not friendly. The other difference is family, culture and religion. To southern blacks, even if it means to the poor and working people within communities in south, the church is central with a sense of family in the communities for they respect each other and stay together, also there is more escapism than drug engagement unlike in north where there is no family respect and poor discipline in the community members (Doug, 1982).
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The southerner’s elders act as role models to the children through tradition of taking care of one another while in north togetherness is not experienced and life for an individual not community (Doug, 1982). The relationship between male and female also differs from both sides. Northern women are admired mostly by men because of their sophistication and sense of style including manners unlike the southern ones who are praised for their charm, domestic skills and sensuality.
Why the kings efforts where ultimately unsuccessful here
They never engaged in uniting as one also not forming organizations to fight for their rights which made it impossible for an individual to manage the fight alone. Trust amongst them was minimal for each and every person fought personally making the kings movement paralyzed.