The history of Mexico traces its name from the roots of Mexica the original Aztec tribal designation. Mexico was a product of a collision between two vastly different worlds. A generation believed to be after Christopher Columbus in the sixteenth century banged into Watling Island of Bahamas. Spain on the other side encountered the bewildering kaleidoscope, which later became southern and central Mexico. The Spaniards were much aware that racial and ethical confrontations could be accompanied by blending of ideas, accommodations, and reconciliation. They were not ready for remarkable civilization that they encountered with the Mexican. On the other side, Native Americans were also found unprepared.
In the appraisal, of civilization of the Native Americans, the Spanish thought of what would be embraced warmly. In the case, where persuasion failed to succeed they used coercion (Meyer, & Beezley, 2000).
In the middle nineteenth century, only Mexico was found in war with the united state, which was much stronger. It was a time after gaining independence from Spain. It was believed that, that war would have been avoided only if the stronger voices from both sides were ready to prevent it. In the same century, Mexico was running behind in technology that other nations had adopted. Between 1860s and 1870s, a need arose to nurture modernization. From 1876 to 1911 a Porfirio Diaz self made politician was in control of Mexico fortunes (Meyer, & Beezley, 2000). He implemented structural reforms, which were responsible for the transformation of the countries face. He also kept the peace in the country.
Railroads tied Mexico and the US boarders with the infusion of foreign capital. The Mexican started to push cars made of wood. Urbanization took control over and made horse drawn carriers to replace streetcar systems. Telephones and postal services that were efficient revitalized communication. Dredged harbors that were improved attracted large vessels of foreign commercial, which eventually opened doors for Mexico to enter the global economy. Mexico was able to be a major exporter of energy globally due to the introduction of thresher and reaper rejuvenated agriculture. Mexico entered an agreement of free trade with US and Canada because of economic globalization.
In 1910, a citizen’s army was raised by Francisco Madero to overthrow Diaz by force. Mexico in 1910 to 1920 underwent internal struggle of violence because of Francisco’s insight (Meyer, & Beezley, 2000). Many lives were claimed in the tremendous toll and caused a lot of suffering to others victims. In the same period, factors were left closed, and mines were abandoned which left the economy of the country in ruins. Additionally, classrooms at all levels from primary to the universities were left empty for lack of teachers. The next ten years saw Mexico revolutionize and stand in a notion of progress as well as new urgency sense.
Industrialization in Mexico life was an impressive fact that was seen in the country’s economy, which went all the way to 1980s (Meyer, & Beezley, 2000). Mexico had suffered so much due to the misdeed of its previous leaders, but the citizens were ready to put that behind them. They were ready to forgive and do everything possible not to make a repetition of transgression of similar kind in the future. Even though in twenty first century, Mexicans were still affected by the past, they were ready to use that past as pillars of strength for the way forward.
Imperialism created an economy of so much inequality between the rural and urban citizens. The government polices on artificial foods made life attractive in the urban while at the same time making the rural producer poor since his cost of production of food could not be compensated (Davis, 1994). Urbanization in Mexico increased tremendously since 1950 with thirty percent of Mexico population is concentrated in the cities. These are only five zones of metropolitan in Mexico. After the census, the country’s urbanization was revealed to be so pronounced. Urbanization continued to intensify because of creation of jobs from economic globalization of the country. The latest demographic data review that urban areas are getting concentrated due to changes in technology, which has created more jobs. Populated urban areas are bleeding more problems of management of the streets. This is because competition is stiff in jobs availability within the urban areas.
The movement of population in Mexico was towards the urban areas especially the capital city (Davis, 1994). Due to advancement in technology Synthetic and artificial foods were produced in volumes. This enhanced the government to make policies that controlled the prices of these foods to be affordable. This caused a great attraction to the city since life was far much attractive and affordable. International migrants pulled to the city as laborers, refugees and other undocumented migrants. This made Mexico one of the largest cities in the world. Better life and jobs in the country attracted more people from all regions in the world. Additionally, policies made migration between different countries possible. More than hundred million people in 1998 were living away from their country of their citizenship or birth.
Socially marginalized groups lag behind in Mexican economy. The prosperous and developed communities in the population reach advance stages in these insufficiencies. There is a difference in the fertility of educated and uneducated women, which explains the difference in the changes, in the family structure. The futility of people in habitant with a less population was lesser than that of those in the urban area. This explained the difference in structure of families in the rural areas and urban areas. Another contributor of the family structure was the difference in the living standards. Those people who were exposed to poverty had more children compared to those who were better of (Tuiran, 2000). This is a clear indication that poverty plays a silent role in the family structure. Wealth or the rich families are able to plan their family and thus their family structure is influenced positively by their status.
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Mexico is a very populated country compared to any other country in the world. In 1999, Mexico’s population was 100 million with a 1.8 percentage annual growth rate (Kirkwood, 2000).
Seventy one percent of the population is of citizens living within the urban area and twenty-nine in the rural areas. The capital city itself has a population of 20 million, which is a fifth of the population. This is as a result of improvement in the health care sector and dietary enhancement life expectancy, which has raised from thirty six years to about seventy and seventy seven for men and women respectively. There is a low-mortality rate because of improvement in the medical care sector. Additionally, the lure of jobs in the city attracts many people into the capital city with elusive myth to tackle unemployment. On the other side, the central part of the country, which is the capital city, receives moderate rainfalls that help thrust agriculture. In fact, Mexico City is the richest part of the country because of agriculture. This explains the densely populated city as people shift to areas that promise a better life.
The government played a major role in capitalizing artificial and synthetic food factories in the country (Davis, 1994). They reinforced policies that boosted the production of artificial and synthetic foods that were priced less in comparison to the natural ones.
This strategy helped in reducing urban cost of labor and living, while making life of a rural producer unfavorable. This was because the strategy was inadequate for compensation of the costs that the rural producers incur in the production of their food products. The strategy eventually increased poverty in the rural area. On the other side, the Northern part of Mexico is an arid land that barely supports life that a single cow’s life and survival cannot be granted. It is highly affected by lack of rain; however, this is not a major alarm since it constitutes a minor proportion of the economy. On the other side when the government failed to take care of the citizens who lived in poverty the church assumed responsibility. It gave complaints of the shortcoming of the government. The government was not able to distribute resources among the citizens after gaining independence (Kirkwood, 2000). The church was a voice for the poor citizens. Not all is lost since social development programs are developed by the government to eliminate the problem of poverty in the country.
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Public policies made in Mexico have failed in reducing inequalities in asset and have contributed in increasing the gap of this inequality. Additionally the government polices on artificial foods have made life unattractive in the rural areas. This is because most of the producers of food in rural areas incur lots of cost for the production of their food but cannot get compensation on the same. They have been left poor while the urban citizens are enjoying a simplified life (Davis, 1994). The progresses of reducing these inequalities were disappointing. Worldwide changes in skilled changes, in technology, increased demands of workers with skills compared to the unskilled ones. Technological changes that were skill-biased led to inequalities in wages, which could be felt all over, the world (Esquivel & Rodríguez-López, 2003). Additionally, skills and education cause inequalities in wages in Mexico.
Annually many migrants come to Mexico or pass through on their way to US. This has attracted crimes in Mexico where there are reports of abuse of human right. The military group is reported to have committed so many acts that have violated the human right. Mexican corrupt officials and criminal gangs murder or abduct irregular migrants. In most cases, women immigrants were raped, journalists harassed, and human right defenders killed. On the other side, most the women experienced gender-based violence without any access to justice. Additionally, marginalized communities are harassed and forced to evict their lands for the purpose economic development. Advancements in technology and urbanization attracted many migrants without exposing dangers that lay ahead of them. Defending human rights in Mexico became a difficult job as well as life threatening. Imperialism has accounted for this discrimination of the weaker community by the powerful community. Mexican authorities were called upon by amnesty to set federal tasks forces that would protect the right of those migrants.
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The introduction of deadly weapons especially the guns as left over 34000 people killed since late 2006 because of raging violence that resulted from drugs. Guns have strengthened gangs in the country who feel powerful (Crossley, 2007). These guns have made it possible for these gangs to be involved in drugs. Drug traffic has been on the rise and has made caused a scare on the investors. Additionally, drug violence has affected the annual GDP of the country, which is an alarming thing. Finance ministered made a declaration of how drugs violence affects economic decision thus taking the growth of the country downwards. On the same note, corruption has increased, prisons have been crowded, and the police force and courts weakened. Calderon is trying is best to curb these problems.
Inability of Americans to prevent weapons that are smuggled within and across it boarder has caused many deaths in Mexican soldier, police officers and the citizens. Lack of same restriction for selling of guns in the private sector has increased firearm dealers. These firearms have been shown to attract many profits that why they are now available in the flea market and the showrooms (Crossley, 2007). Everybody with money that is needed for the price of the guns can easily get them. This has been the reason for the problems and the violence of drug trafficking that is heavily experienced.
International Monetary Funds plays its role in maintaining currency exchange rates that are stable between trading countries. This helps in preventing currency exploitation from one country to another. It also offers designed loans that help countries to restructure economies to increase exports to draw investments of foreigners. World Bank classifies Mexico as an upper-middle-income country where economic growth is needed to offer employment opportunities in the legitimate economy. Mexican trade regimes are built on agreement of free trade with US and Canada. Mexico receives foreign currency in the form of remittance from US of average $21 billion annually. On the other side, Mexico is an active member in the World Trade Organizations. Its government supports a free trade area of Americans with the top U.S exports of electronic appliance, vehicle spare parts, and chemicals.
Amnesty called upon the Mexican authorities to set federal roles and tasks forces that would protect the rights of migrants who face human right abuse on annual bases. Mexico had to do something to protect the right of migrants and other citizens who are abused now and them. Another social development program that is developed by the government is set to help in eliminating poverty in the country. The main goal of this program is to see equality among all citizens. International Monetary Fund on the other side plays the role of maintaining currencies of exchange rates stable to avoid exploitation. International Monetary Fund also issues designed loans that help countries to restructure economies to increase exports to draw investments of foreigners. On the other side, World Bank helps in enhancing opportunities in the legitimate economy for entrance in the work force.
In conclusion, despite the many problems facing the country, Mexico is a country of great value especially due to its exports. Additionally, the citizens are people with the will power to more forward despite the struggles of the past. They are ready to put past nasty things behind them and move forward. On the other side, the government should evaluate its policies to benefit all the citizens. It should not major on the urban so much and neglect the effort of the poor farmer in the rural areas. The government should also deal with inequalities in everything possible way and focus on eliminating it. This discrimination is not necessary. They should understand that it is a dangerous thing for the economy of the country.