Industrialization is the process by which a country by means of technology changes from agricultural production to the business of making goods. It entails the development of a country’s economy by getting more skilled workforce. This leads to an improvement in the people’s way of life, by creating more job opportunities in the production of goods. Manufacturing goods in a country leads to sufficient resources. There is improved transportation, better health care, and enough food for the people in a country. Industrialization started in the western countries, and spread to the third world countries.
Marxist theory entails that all human activities, which are rooted in labored activities. Human beings must obtain a livelihood; to accomplish this, they must organize productive forces. Everything in life rests on this Economic Foundation; it is through this that society comes into being. The society is then divided into classes with one class being dominant over the rest.
The shift from Agrarian to the industrial revolution led to improvement in productivity. There emerged the existence of a group that owned and controlled means of production. This meant they had power and were majorly policy makers; they comprised the upper class. With the increase in productivity, there was an increase in population and people moved from rural to urban areas in search of jobs. This meant they had to leave their families behind. This had an impact on the family and the social structure as people left their loved ones in search of work in the urban setting (Jacob 46). With this, there emerged the middle class and the low class who labored in factories owned by the upper class.
Conditions at the work place were not favorable, with low wages, poor safety conditions, and child labor being rampant. Money became the driving force as the owners of production pushed for maximization of profit at the expense of low cost of labor (Avineri 84). This meant that the middle and low class lived in poor conditions, which were characterized by poor education, housing, and health. The expansion of the middle class skilled workers led to a sense of change. There was a sense of political maturity due to the economic struggles experienced by the middle and low class (Avineri 102).
The living conditions of the middle and low class people made them agitate for change. They demanded political reforms to enable them seek elective positions in order to be part of policymaking. They demanded reforms in the labor laws and this saw the emergence of trade unions, which were created to fight for the rights of workers such as improvement in the working conditions and abolishment of child labor. Wage was pegged on output; the more a worker produced the more he was paid.
The agitation for change led to reforms as people became more and more aware of their rights. There was an improvement in the political structure. Those in middle class grew in terms of income, they were able to influence policy making, as they were involved in policymaking. Strengthening of trade unions meant that enactment of laws put into considerations the plight of the middle and low class. The social economic structure also improved, in that, with improved wages and working conditions people were able to afford a decent lifestyle. With basic human needs provided, the population was able to afford education; this meant improvements in their skills; thus, cementing job security. The workers were able to afford nutritious food; thus, maintaining a healthy population. They were also able to dress in style with the current trends in the market. There was a renewed sense of belonging as the gap between the upper and middle class reduced. As the conditions improved further, the middle class were able to own means of production; thus, they were able to provide employment.
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