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On 6thApril 1994, and for 100 days, Rwanda plunged into a brutal massacre, on average, 700 people were killed every day. Between Rwandan Hutu and Tutsi, there should not be a divided nation, but the two identities can be integrated with each other. In order to facilitate the rules of the two colonizers, it had artificially denoted them as two different races. It had been the Tutsi as an agent of the colonial government that formed the colonized antagonistic relationship with the foreign colonists. After independence, this kind of race sense of identity remains low, and becomes an effective tool to organize the masses for the immobilization of the Hutu. Finally, the horrible slaughter, the massacre movement was started by the nation's Tutsi brothers. Therefore, from a political perspective; genocide in Rwanda is unavoidable due to history, culture and social value (The history place).
Tutsi and Hutu in Rwanda accounted for 85 percent of the population, and 14 percent Tutsi speaks French, and make their living through farming while the Hutu in Rwanda speak English and Swahili, and make their living in animal husbandry. In April of 1994, President Habyarimana of Rwanda and the president of Burundi were on a plane together, that was destroyed in the airport in the Rwandan capital, killing both of the presidents. The Rwandan Genocide happened after the death of president Habyarimana in the 1994, the mass murder of was estimated at 800,000 people in the small East African nation of Rwanda. Over the course of approximately 100 days from the assassination of President Juvénal Habyarimana on April 6 through mid-July, at least 800,000 people were killed (Desforges, A. 1999).
Other estimates the death could have ranged between 500,000 and 1,000,000 or as much as 20 percent of the country's total population (BBC News 2008). It was the culmination of longstanding ethnic competition and tensions between the minority Tutsi, who had controlled power for centuries, and the majority of Hutu people, who had come to power in the rebellion of 1959–1962 and had overthrown the Tutsi monarchy (Lemarchand, R. 2002). The massacre was named to be a rare disaster of the century. Most of the victims of this vendetta were Tutsis; moreover, the Hutu killers were the same ones killing the ethnic compatriots who advocated for national reconciliation. Prior to 20 years, the two communities had three times larger armed conflict in1959, 1963, and 1973 (Untold stories. Rwandan timeline). The armed conflict occurred in the capital spread throughout the country in a short time; it was developed from the fight of two sides into a large flame between a Hutu and Tutsi tribes.
Riots and massacres in Rwanda were not the original hostility between the two communities or the result of historical scores, but were the final results of the long process of European colonialism and racism; where the colonialists led to the ethnic division between Hutu and Tutsi. Massacre was occupied by government core, known as "Hutu power" which was a radical Hutu elite group that initiated and commanded the killings. The Group, President Habyarimana, the army, police, political parties, propaganda and public organizations are inextricably linked. Holocaust is a deliberate choice because of the attempt to encourage hatred and fear to save his power and which led to the result. The group commanded tens of thousands of ordinary Hutus to holocaust movement; they became the executioner who killed the Tutsis. Starting from the capital Kigali the movement spread rapidly to every county, commune, district and village. The group used mass media to slander the minority of Tutsi and the opposition of Hutu , both were said to be traitors, and the alliance with the traitors who were about to enter the capital (Thompson, A. 2007).
The killing was well organized by the government. When it started, the Rwandan militia numbered around 30,000, or one militia member for every ten families (Leave none to tell the story, 2004). It was organized nationwide, with representatives in every neighborhood. In such a "tiny" little country, how could there be so much hostility? After the colonists withdrew colonies, the vacuum of the remained power would cause the struggle between the oppressors and oppressed. Rwanda was no different than its precedents, such as India and Congo. The tribal conflict in Rwanda had proved that it was created by the Western colonizers (A brief history, 1996). Hundred years ago, the Europeans first came to Rwanda; they found that the two tribes in this country who helped each other mutually, and led a harmonious life. Well-known British historian of Africa, Davidson highlighted they lived in a harmonious, contented society, which had little hatred between the two tribes; it was entirely caused by the colonial system (Davidson, B. 1992). The British first came to Rwanda, after World War I, and then the Belgians took indirect rule to Rwanda.
They decided to support under the skin depth of the color lighter Tutsi domination of the country, because they looks more like the Europeans. The Tutsis were selected by the Belgians as Hutu agents. Rwandan genocide was unique in not only Slaughter of the population but also the massacre in a rapid speed, but also in its mobilization of the Hutu mass participation (New internationalist magazine). Thousands of ordinary Hutu peasants and workers waving machetes, sticks, hoes and other farm tools happily killed their Tutsi neighbors. When they joined in the ranks of the holocaust, what did they think about in their minds? Tutsis had long been demonized; the Hutu people should have seen the Tutsis people as foreign invaders and thus they should surrender or destruct the Tutsi. Therefore, during the complex contradictions in this country, there are the traditional conflict between Hutu and Tutsis and also the conflict between Northern Hutu and the southern Hutus repressed by Habyarimana regime (New internationalist magazine).
Rwanda was forming a unified national minority in one of the countries of Africa before the colonial invasion. Rwandan people shared the same culture, used the same language. After the colonial rule, the foreign religion destroyed Rwanda cultural values, and the country's internal race. Holocaust made its cultural environment caused serious damages. For years, the Tutsi monarchy had controlled most of the power in Rwanda. The monarchy continued under colonial rule. Practices in the past were part of the culture of Rwanda; for instance, King Rwabugiri (1867–1897) instituted the hated corvée labor, which drew mostly from the majority Hutu. In addition, he elevated the use of violence as standard practice against domestic and external foes. Race, hated ideology was widespread before the breakouts of violence, which could be explained why massacre movement among the masses became so successful and quickly popular.
No matter what kind of cultural backgrounds, the key point is how racism has become the practice of a political organization. The real killer is racism, which is derived from historical experience and political demands, during imperialism partitioned of Africa. For Africa, the West has been using, and even deliberately create racism theory in order to sell African slaves, conquer, massacre, and ruling African natives more easily. The shape of the racial concept is not the only objective of brainwashing. In a special historical period of colonialism, a strong psychological structure, a kind of fetishism, imposed culture of Rwanda had long effect on Rwandans. Only in this way, we can fully understand the profound causes of the Holocaust (Sen, S. 2006).
In the late 50s, with the upsurge of national independence movement, the upper molecular Hutu and Tutsi aristocracy began to dominate the long-term dissatisfaction with the administrative and economic sectors, for the abolition of aristocratic privilege and the fight for Hutu’s equal rights. In 1959, many parts of Hutu peasants started to revolt. Belgian colonists provoked clashes between Hutu and Tutsis, resulting in serious bloodshed which caused the colonial authorities repressed in the name of restoring the order. A large number of Tutsi refugees exiled to neighboring countries; this laid tribal conflict of seeds between Hutu and Tutsis. Since then, the conflict between the two tribes became the root of political instability in Rwanda. Moreover, the refugee problem was a major hazard. During 1959 to 1973, four large-scale bloody tribal conflicts in Rwanda led large numbers of refugees (mostly Tutsis) fled their homes to neighboring countries (Untold stories. Rwandan timeline).
For many years, the government had done nothing to the refugees. In fact, the refugee problem had become a hidden danger in regime. In addition, population explosion and shortage of land was the main reason for conflicts. Caused by many factors of the civil war in Rwanda and contradiction, in the final analysis, it was due to financial development. In 1991, 91 percent of the workforce engaged in agriculture (mainly stay in self-sufficiency level), while the industrial and tertiary industries were not developed. Labor could not transfer to these departments, so a large number of workers depend on agriculture, but the small land could not afford to over-expand to accommodate the population. On the other hand, approximately 95 percent of agricultural output was provided by the food self-sufficiency. Now all these contradictions and confrontations often reflected through political infighting (The preventable genocide international panel of eminent personalities).
In conclusion, the caution that Rwandan genocide gave us is not only the shocking number of victims but also the international community's indifference. The most important is the imperfect system of international law; especially, in the face of emergency humanitarian disaster, the law also seemed to be a bit stiff. Therefore, the tragic situation in Rwanda was caused by the complex reasons, but we can say that it was also due to many contradictions that had accumulated for a long time. In history aspect, it was the result of an imperialist dividing the country, which led the hostility between the two tribes. Then, in the aspect of the society, it was mainly because of the country’s poverty in which owning a piece of land was so rare, yet, there was an increase of people living in the country.
Also most of the people made their living for farming, which led the country to be economically far behind. In the aspect of the culture, Rwandan people had shared the same culture used the same language - Zinnia Kinyarwanda long time ago. After colonial rule, foreign religion destroyed Rwanda cultural values and the country's internal race. Holocaust made its cultural environment, causing more damages. Therefore, in a world perspective, the government should take some measures, such as handling the refugees and creating a harmonious environment between the two tribes, which could lead to a true national reconciliation. They should also focus the economic development, not make a conflict between themselves. Only in this way, the disaster would be avoidable.
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