An estuary is the mouth of a river or part of a river that is below sea level that has freshwater at low tides and salt water at high tides. It is rich in plant life with many adaptations in order to survive the salty sea water. The water in estuaries is saltier than freshwater but not as salty as true seawater. Estuaries are the marine environment who?s PH, salinity and water levels vary which depends upon the he river that feeds the estuary and the ocean from which it derives its salinity (Walker, 2002).
It is susceptible to pollution and environmental issues because the pollutants enter into estuaries which adversely damage the aquatic life.
The environmental issue such as industrialization is affecting it very severely in such a way that the number of wastes has been increased in the river.
Pollution and overfishing are the two major threats to our estuaries and watersheds. The concentrated material and sediments have great impact on estuaries (Dobson and Beck, 1999). Land run-off and industrial, agricultural, and domestic waste enter rivers and are discharged into estuaries. Theses wastes are usually very toxic in nature which accumulates in the tissues of many species of aquatic life.
In addition to pollution, overfishing also is a great threat to estuaries as the numbers of aquatic animals are increasing day by day. Due to this a large amount of destruction is taking place in marine ecosystem.
To reduce and overcome these threats, the EPA and other groups are dealing very seriously with them because of there destructive impact on the marine life. They have established the public awareness programmes related to pollution so that the rate of pollution must be reduced to a great extent (Kennish, 1999). The reason behind such programmes is to create awareness in the people and serve the good quality water. On the other hand, to preserve the mariine biodiversity EPA and other groups are also very active. For this purpose, different laws and programmes are working.
In addition to EPA and other groups, it is also our responsibility to save the estuaries. We have to take a lot of care that we must not become the part of the pollution creators by any way.
We must limit the use of fertilizers in the agricultural fields because these chemicals can be very harmful to the environment and estuaries and watershed. The use pesticides are also very dangerous to human health, environment and estuaries. So the limited use of pesticides will ultimately benefit us because the excessive use of pesticides can kill larvae of crabs and shrimp.
Therefore, there is a need of organized plan which can save the estuaries. The wastes which discharge from the agriculture and industries should have some specific area so that they should not pollute the healthy water and marine population.