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Cold War, Reconstruction Period, Black Nationalism

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The cold war is defined as the silent conflict between the capitalistic states (also referred to as democratic states) and the socialist states (also referred to as the communist states) (Alexander, 2008). The communist states were mainly lead by the Soviet Union whereas on the other hand the Capitalist or the democratic nations were led by the United States of America (Alexander, 2008). There were no serious military aggressions related to the cold war. The main weapon used in the cold war was the spread of propaganda and lies about the enemy (Alexander, 2008). The other forms which the cold war was fought was through economic conflicts which involved completion in giving financial aid to supporting states , though the cold war was viewed as a war without bloodshed there were small military confrontation between the communist guerillas and the United States troops (Alexander, 2008).

The cold war took place in many different locations, these locations included Africa, and the main nations in the African continent which were battle grounds for the cold war were states which had just acquired independence (Alexander, 2008). The cold war was also fought in states which were neither supporters of the communist rule nor the capitalist rule (Alexander, 2008). Asia and the space were also fighting grounds for the cold war. The exact period which the cold war began has not been agreed upon by the various scholars who have presented academic works with regard to the cold war history (Alexander, 2008). This means that we do not have the exact date which the cold war began (Alexander, 2008). However, most historians point out to the reign of President Truman, this is because it was in the year 1947 when President Truman proclaimed a decree which goes against all the ideas which the spirit of communism is founded on (Alexander, 2008). The cause of the cold war is attributed to the ideological differences with regard to political views and economic principles (Alexander, 2008). The main differences were between the United States and the Soviet Union (Alexander, 2008). The conflict was sparked off after the Second World War due to high suspicion and lack of trust between the two nations (Alexander, 2008).

After the Second World War there was a period of reconstruction (Alexander, 2008). The period was referred to as the reconstruction period because it is during this period that the nations affected by the war were trying to get back up. The nations were trying to recover both economically and politically (Alexander, 2008). In the urge to revive the initial political atmosphere there was formation of groups which were mainly focused on the ideas of the society where such groups were based. It was under these groups that the spirit of patriotism and nationalism came up (Alexander, 2008). The formation of such groups brought up the issue of liberalism, the issue of liberalism became more rampant in the 1960s when President Lyndon Johnson took over power (Alexander, 2008). The main agenda of Lyndon was to promote programs which aimed at giving aid to the society the idea was also referred to as “Great Society Programs” (Taylor, 1996).

The idea mainly included the protection of the people rights, the stop social stratification on the basis of one&rsqu;s race and the giving of government aid when it comes to health and education (Taylor, 1996). The program was mainly developed to ensure that poverty is eradicated from the society. With time the issue of liberalism gained momentum and the persons supporting it developed mechanisms of how to achieve justice when it comes to both social and economic issues in the society (Dudziak, 2001). The issue of liberalism had some form of tyranny in it. This is because in the 1960s, the persons supporting the liberalism movements organized rallies which were aimed at preaching against the act of distributing wealth equally among the citizens of a particular society (Taylor, 1996). The movement could be described as a movement which was against all communistic ideas since they mainly preached against the act of revising the current political and government institutions to support the communist form of government in the United States (Dudziak, 2001). However, the liberalism movements gave the importance of leaving the current structure of government organs; the liberalism movements supported the concentration of both economic and political power to the mighty few (Taylor, 1996).The liberalism movements was viewed worldwide as a move to discredit and discourage the principles on which the communist political idea is based, in a given way instead of such ideas restoring peace and harmony in the world they only make the prevailing state of political affairs worse (Taylor, 1996).

The ideas of minorities during the reconstruction period were based on the concept of liberalism, therefore instead of the indented reconstruction and worldwide healing, such ideas perpetuated the cold war since they openly preached against the communist ideas (Taylor, 1996).The issue of liberalism was mainly practiced in the United States which is a capitalist nation and was against communist idea (Dudziak, 2001). Therefore, the minority groups were in a great way increasing the rivalry between the two nations hence perpetuating the cold war, therefore instead of political reconstruction and ensuring that the rights of the minority are addressed with regard to access to services and other basic needs, the ideas of the minority groups advocating for liberalism catapulted the cold war (Taylor, 1996).

In the year 1963, Martin lither king junior delivered his “I have a dream speech” (Dudziak, 2001). It was in this period that the American people moved from farm settlements to urban settlements and the country was encountering an economic expansion period (Dudziak, 2001). At this point the Africans living in America were face with the challenge of social stratification on the basis of their color (Dudziak, 2001). However, the racism encountered in the south was a bit minimal compared to other parts since there was civil rights movement which was led by the late Martin Luther King Junior. Black people in America were facing it rough since the American legislation body and judiciary passed laws and decided cases in a way that supported the act of racial segregation. Some of the laws which paved way for racial segregation include the laws set by Jim Crow (Dudziak, 2001). The movement against racial segregation was also accompanied with movements advocating for gender equality and moovements against actions that violate human rights. Some of these movements include the movement against the Vietnam War and the Women’s Liberation Movement (Dudziak, 2001). The late 1960s saw more than 100 United States cities suffer from riots and in the early 1970s the United States of America witnessed a turning point in its history (Wallerstein, 1961).

It is within this period that the black people started being recognized in the society and certain powers conferred to them (Dudziak, 2001). This is the point where we can say that there was an intersection between Black Nationalism and the cold war; this is because of the international perspective with regard to the actions of the United States federal government which allowed racial segregation to take place (Wallerstein, 1961). This was a very bad image for the United States since it was struggling to maintain a perfect image both in Africa and Europe so as to outshine its cold war rivals (Dudziak, 2001). This gave the rivals of the United States a “bargaining weapon” to help them win the ongoing the ideological war (Wallerstein, 1961). They argued that how can the united states of America claim to lead the world whereas it is allowing a substantial amount of its citizens to be subjected to racial discrimination, this argument by the cold war rivals put the united states of America between a rock and a hard substance, the government had no choice but to start advocating for civil rights for the people who are being discriminated against (Wallerstein, 1961). This gives us a clear image of the relationship between the cold war and the Black Nationalism movement; therefore it is safe to say that the cold war greatly contributed to the success of the Black Nationalism Movement (Taylor, 1996).

The cold war which originated from the lack of trust between the major participants of the second world war was facilitated by many events (Dudziak, 2001), it is not only differences with regard to political and economic ideas of the participants but also there were some events which indirectly fueled the conflicts (Taylor, 1996). The period of reconstruction is also seen as one of the periods where the cold war developed (Taylor, 1996). This is because during this period, the people developed different political standpoints which were in conflict with each other, the process of liberalism also contributed to the Cold war by making some people in America especially minority groups preach against the restructuring of certain procedures by the government (Dudziak, 2001).

The major changes that they were against were those changes which were based on communist ideas, this these people preach against communism (Dudziak, 2001). This attracted the attention of the international community with regard to their standpoint concerning communist ideas (Dudziak, 2001). There is other aspect that is indirectly related to the cold is the Black Nationalism movement because the movement gave the rivals of America a chance to paint their face black by explaining how they perpetrate hypocrisy by not practicing what they preach (Dudziak, 2001). From the above, one can clearly see the relationship between the cold war and events in the American history, such events greatly fueled the cold war (Dudziak, 2001)

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