River Nile is the longest river in the world, which covers thousands of miles from Lake Victoria in eastern Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. Nile consists of Blue Nile which is in Ethiopia at Lake Tana, and White Nile which is around Lake Victoria in Uganda.
For a long time, Egypt has been claiming to have owned river Nile since the 13th century. Egypt has been controlling the amount of water used by the countries covered by Nile. This begun in the late 1920s when Sudan and Egypt signed an agreement that guaranteed the majority of river Nile’s water to Egypt. Since then the river there have been disputes over the river due to the conditions made by the Egyptian leaders. Egypt has veto power over the development projects related to river Nile, and has 55.5 billion cubic meters of Nile’s water, annually.
Countries like Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia and other countries that benefit from the river Nile, are only allowed to use a third of the river’s water, while Egypt uses the rest. Most of the countries in eastern Africa especially Ethiopia and Sudan have rainy seasons, and without the Nile’s water the countries turns in to a desert, living the plants in the farmlands drying. The Egyptian leaders deals with the rivers issue as a matter of life of death claiming that the river is part of Egypt’s life, because it supplies the country with 95% of it’s needs. Egypt has never agreed to solve the dispute over river Nile with the other beneficiaries of the river, they say, this will be a way of satisfying other countries needs and interests weakening their historic rights to the river.
There was a recent dispute between Ethiopia and Egypt over river Nile, where by Ethiopia constructed hydroelectric plant in the Blue Nile without consulting the Egyptian government. When the Egyptian knew, they started threatening Ethiopia but the Ethiopian prime minister insisted on going on with the construction. He said that his country has several blackouts and their children die of malnourishment under the age of five. Since then, wealthy people in Ethiopia have been irrigating thousands of acres providing their country with the highest percentage of food supply. It has been a turn around to the Ethiopians since the Egyptians have always benefited from the river while the Ethiopians die of poverty.
According to surveys that were conducted by the World Bank, 80% of the Ethiopians live without the access to the modern electricity power. The Chinese contractors have used this opportunity to invest in Ethiopia by constructing power lines to carry electric power from the Tana hydroelectric company to some of the cities in the country. Since the first hydroelectric station built during the Haile Selassie emperor, Ethiopia has been benefiting from a couple of power stations built in Ethiopia. Rice farmers in Ethiopia are now harvesting hundreds of sacks that can feed the entire country in one season. The country is also exporting it’s product to the international markets.
A delta is a low triangular region where a river divides before joining with a larger mass of water. This is where the mouth of the river, flows to large waters such as oceans or big seas. There are several types of deltas, they are wave dominated, and tide dominated, Gilbert, estuaries, and inland deltas.
River Nile being the longest river in the world has had several disputes since the time Moses who is in the bible was carried by the river on a basket. Although the Egyptian has been threatening the countries using the river’s water against their conditions, this has been impossible. Ethiopia is among the countries with the strongest and superior armed forces, since it conquered the British during colonization.
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