The surface of the earth is divided between many countries. There many relationships between these countries. There are also many differences between these countries and they are an integral and necessary for working together of these countries. However there is a need to consider the relationship between modern human geography and European colonialism in the age of empire that is from 187o to 1914. During the age of empire it was the moment of decisive importance for the making of modern civilization.
Most of historians of geography like Edward S aid have recently given much attention to the interplay between colonialism, modernity and early colonization during the age of imperialism. If one asks himself about prospects of a modern human geography there is a great need to understand the origins of early human geography especially in the age of colonization in order to see the broader picture of a civilization in transit. For this reason there is a need to revisit the works of authors who have contributed to the evaluation of European science and what they have to give.
One of the memorable works are those of carolus Linnaeus, David Livingstone, the voyage of captain cook Joseph Conrad and the like. There is also the need to look into the works of Stoddarts who is devoted to making of a sense of nature. This will help demystify the claim of geography to play a central role among the sciences of nature. Claims of geography as an European science have a sense of truth since early explorers and sciences were Europeans people like.
There has been an attitude that claims Europe to be the center of human inquiry, social analysis and political practice. These three spheres are strongly interlinked, and revolve around the constitution of Europe as the subject and object of inquiry, as architect and arbiter of method, and as exemplar and engineer of progress. The assumption that Europe provides the model and good narrative of the world history, that is histories and geographies are truly the norm and rule form which the other people learn from or digress from place Europe at the core of human inquiry. Europe’s theoretical formulations and analytical methods provide the most powerful resources for all the explanations and interpretation that is why it is regarded as the worlds centre for analysis. Also through the assumption that Europe’s’ cultural and political systems act as the bearers of a universal reasoning that maps out the ideal track of ll human history places Europe as the centre of political practice
Some of geography's historians center of attention on the scientific revolutions of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (Livingstone, 1990), while others put emphasis on philosophers and geographers of the Enlightenment, such as Kant and Humboldt (Glacken, 1967). We are concerned with a third age in the history of Geographical awareness: the institutionalization of geography during the late nineteenth century. This is not to argue that others have misconceived the descent of 'modern' geography; modernity without doubt as a diversity of 'origins' which are Irreducible to each other . Yet the focus on the closing decades of the nineteenth
Century is particularly fitting in the present context, as it require us to Acknowledge the matter-of-fact role of a discipline which found itself entangled in a world of contracting spaces and expanding ambitions. The relationships between human geography and imperialism have fascinated extraordinarily few historians, particularly where the British empire is concerned (Mackay,1943). The reasons for this neglect are difficult to detect, given the considerable efforts that have made to reappraise the colonial past of related disciplines, especially anthropology (Asad, 1973; ). Some might regard the lack of sustained critical reflection on geography and empire, in Britain at least, as a sign of the strong hold that the colonial frame of mind has upon the subject. It is as if the writings of our predecessors were so saturated with colonial and imperial themes that to problematise their role is to challenge the very status of the modern discipline. Yet this is perhaps the very thing that needs to be done if geographers are to exploit present intellectual and political opportunities. Such a critique need not result in mere handwringing; indeed, it might point us towards alternative roles for geographers in the future.