Chaffar, S., & Frasson, C. (2005). The emotional conditions of learning. Retrieved August 14, 2010
Chaffar and frasson argue that the theory of conditions of learning proposed by Gagne failed to incorporate the emotional factor as one of the conditions of learning. According to chaffar and frasson neurosciences and psychology have proven that emotions are related to the cognitive processes such as long term memory, problem solving and decision making. The relationship between the cognitive process and emotions affects learning therefore it is important to consider the role of emotions in the learning process. The learning process requires four cognitive phases: attention acquisition, retrieval and the response process. In the attention phase the learner receives stimuli which seem relevant to him. Some stimuli may receive more attention than others. Stimuli received are stored in the short term memory. In order for stimuli to be stored in the long term memory they must undergo the acquisition process. The retrieval processes assists the individual fetch and remember information which had been stored in the long term memory. The response process allows the learner respond after remembering information. This may be done through activities such as demonstrating and writing. Chaffar and frasson argue that emotions affect the learner’s ability of carrying out these learning phases effectively through several ways. Chaffar and frasson recommend that teachers and materials used for learning should use intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) which take advantage of the influence of emotions in learning in order to get the best results out of a learner.
Merriam, S., B. (2008). Adult learning theory for the twenty-first century. New directions for adult and continuing education. 2008(19), 93-98.
Merriam takes a different approach towards the traditional explanation of the adult learning theory. The according to the traditional understanding of the adult learning theory, learning takes place at an individual level. In this case the brain acquires facts and information and converts them into knowledge leading to behavior change. Merriam argues that this concept does not offer sufficient explanation regarding how adult learning goes on in the modern environment. Merriam notes that learning is a multidimensional process that is widely affected by the social cultural environment. Therefore teachers should recognize that adult learning is multidimensional and not just a cognitive process. Therefore instruction techniques and materials should be expanded and updated in order to foster adult learning in the modern environment. She further explains that adult learning should be linked with past experiences in order to optimize the learning process.
Sjoberg, S. (2007). Constructivism and learning. International encyclopedia of education. Retrieved August 15, 2010
Sjoberg notes that the term constructivism has been widely used and in some cases its definition has been altered inappropriately. This has attracted a lot of criticisms towards this theory because of the erroneous use and application. In this article Sjoberg explains the theory of constructivism based on education and teaching. Sjoberg notes that many people have taken constructivism to be a useless theory in today’s learning environment and view it as a fashion or orthodox. He notes that most of the available literature defines the theory of constructivism in shallow terms. Sjoberg explains the history of the constructivism theory and its current application In order to explore its application and the definition appropriately,. Sjoberg notes that over the years the theory of constructivism has been subdivided into various sub-theories such as social constructivism, individual constructivism, simple constructivism and social constructivism among others. In order to eliminate the dilemmas and misunderstanding created by these sub-theories of constructivism, Sjoberg explains the core ideas of the theory of constructivism theory. These core ideas enable one understand the constructivism theory and widen the scope of the theory in terms of application in today’s learning environment.
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