Many studies in different fields have been carried out over the years. The studies have involved collection of both qualitative data as well as quantities data. Data collection is a process that requires the researcher to be very careful in the whole exercise so that he/she corrects the right data that is required to meet the purpose of carrying out the research. There various data collection methods that is available. These methods include observations, use of questionnaires and use of case studies. After data collection come the stage of analysis the data that have been collected from the field.
Data analysis determines the outcome of the final findings of the study in question. In this stage the one involved in the process of data analysis has to select the data that is relevant for the study and record it for the sole purpose of drawing conclusion based on the data (Hunter 2008). Thus it can be concluded that analysing both qualitative data and quantative is vital for any study. It is therefore important for the researcher to use various tools that are vailable for data analysis such as presentation of the data in tables, graphs, pie charts among other methods of data collection.
Management is an important aspect of any given organisation. For any given organisation to succeed it is required to have an outstanding management to be in place that will give direction to the various organs of the organization. There is a popular saying that managers are not always leaders. If one have to be counted as a successful manager then he/ she must be in a postion to provide much needed leadership to the people that he/ she is managing. There are different approaches of leadership P. Beynon-Davies (2009.
Leadership can be defined as providing direction and having an influence on the people that you are leading. In order to achieve the much needed influence over the people that you are leading there are different leadership styles that one can use for the sole purpose of achieving your objectives. This leadership styles include buacrocratic leadership style, democratic leadership style, and autocratic leadership style. For the purpose of this paper we will analysis the two types of leadership style that is democratic leadership style and autocratic leadership style.
First we have to understand the meaning of this styles, Democratic leadership style is a type of leadership approach where the leader of a allows the subordinates to contribute their ideas about how an organization can be improved. This type of leadership approach a sense of belonging among the subordinates and it greatly contributes to the success of the organization. On the other hand, autocratic leadership style is form of leadership where the leader has the final say over the matters of concerning the running of the organization, he/ she give orders and the subordinates are expected to obey these orders without questioning them. This approach to leadership is one of the worst to be used in a business organization setting. It bring downs the productivity of various members of the organization and builds wall between the subordinate and the management (Lord 1986). This kind of relationship is unhealthy for the growth of the organization.
This paper intends to understand the two mentioned leadership styles as used in different organizations. The paper will analysis the data collected on the two types of leadership approaches and then present the analyzed data in various ways of data presentation that are available such as tables, graphs and tables.
The analysis of the quantitative data on the subjects of our study will be based on the following questions that were presented to the 20 different respondents to help in studying the two leadership styles that are under review in the study. These questions that were answered in the preliminary stages of data collection include;
(i) How effective is leadership in your organization?
(ii) Which style of leadership is used in your organization?
(iii) What are the weaknesses and strengths of the leadership style used in your organization?
(iv) Which of the two leadership style that is, democratic amd autocratic styles is best according to your views?
The questions were distributed among 20 respondents from 4 different organizations. The quantative data collected from the research is the one that willbe analyzed in this paper.
The numerical data collected on the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the two type of the leadership styles that were under the study is indicated below in the various ways of analysis data.
The data collected from the study is as indicated on the table below which indicated the effectiveness as well as the ineffectiveness of democratic leadership style and autocratic leadership style .
From the data above we can analyze the validity of our research hypothesis on which of the two leadership styles are effective that is , autocratic and democratic (Kenny 1983). This will be analyzed based on the data collected from the various respondents from five different organizations as indicated in the abbove table.
Democratic leadership style.
Mean effective= 15/20 = 0.75
Mean ineffective 5/20= 0.25
The median of the data on the effective part is 3 while on the other hand for ineffectiveness is 4.
The mode of the data collected on the part of effectiveness is 3 while on the part of ineffectiveness it is 1.
Autocratic leadership style.
Mean effective= 5/20 =0.25
Mean ineffective = 15/20= 0.75
The median for the data collected from the study is as follows; effective 3 while on the part of ineffective it is 4.
On the other hand the mode for the collected data on the part of effective 3& 1 while on the part of ineffective its 2.
The variability of the collected data can be analyzed as follows;
The variability of the data is usually measured using the various tools such as standard deviation and range with a sole purpose of representing data in terms that are better understood by the intended audience. For the purpose of analysing data for this paper standard deviation has been used to measure the variability of the data that was collected.
Democratic leadership style.
Effectiveness (Standard deviation) = (0.75) (0.75)/ 20= 0.345
Ineffective (Standard deviation) = (0.25)( 0.25)/20= 0.432
Autocratic leadership style.
Effectiveness (standard deviation) = (0.25) (0.25) = 0.432
Ineffectiveness (standard deviation) = (0.75) (0.75) = 0.345
The data from the study can be interpreted using the various methods of data presentation such as pie chart, bar chart, graphs in order to bring clear pictures of the data that was collected from the study.
Barchart on the collected data;
The above bar chart represents the numerical data collected on the effectiveness as well as the ineffectiveness of autocratic and democratic leadership style. The x- axis represents the leadership styles while the y- axis represents the effectiveness as well as the in effectiveness of the two leadership style that were under review in the study.
From the pier chart above Apples represent effectiveness of democratic leadership style while plume represent the ineffectiveness of the democratic leadership style (Mann 1959). On the other hand, grapes represent the effectiveness of the autocratic leadership style while deora represent ineffectiveness of the autocratic leadership style. 2002 indicates the data collected from organization A& B while 2003 represent data collected from organization C, D& E.
Graphs indicating the data that was collected;
From the graph below the y-axis represent organizations from which the data was collected while the x-axis represents the two leadership styles that are under review that is democratic and autocratic. On the other hand, bus represent effectiveness of any of the leadership style while they represent the ineffectiveness of the styles under review.
Based on the data that has been analyzed the validity of the research hypothesis has been tested using the various tools of analysising numerical data / quantities data. The statement that democratic leadership style is effective compared to autocratic leadership style is true based on the data collected and analyzed (Stogdill 1948). Many of the respondents contacted from different organization revealed to us that democratic leadership approach is preferred by many in comparison to autocratic leadership style. Each and every respondents had his/ her own reasons for concluding that democratic leadership style is effective way of managing various organizations.
It can be concluded that there are various ways that can be used to analyze quantative data in order to measure the validity and present the data for better understanding. This methods includes using various inferential and descriptive statistics methods such as mean, standard deviation, mode, mean, range among other methods to analyze numerical data that is collected from the field.