The increasing globalization process in the resent world has made it exorbitantly important to improve the communicative language teaching in our learning institutions. The written and verbal communication skills is therefore required in order to ensure that people effectively transact their businesses without experiencing communication barriers. Considering the fact that South Korea is a developing nation, its interactions with the rest of the world is vital. Its government therefore ought to ensure that its learning institutions effectively participate in developing communication skills amongst the students. This paper seeks to analyze how teachers of English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) can effectively improve the language subject in the learning institutions. My research paper will be based on South Korea.
Communicative language teaching can be described as a set of principles which guide and coordinate language teachings in the various learning institutions. The principles therefore coordinate the teaching and learning activities in such institutions. Basically communication learning assists people to interact with one another. However, there are some socio-linguistic limitations which are mainly caused by the diverse social set up in the world. The environmental, social and memory constraints are some of the major limitations which have greatly influence the communicative language teaching practices in the modern world.
Among the major communicative language teaching goal is to ensure communicative competencies. However, it is important to understand that such competencies are brought about by some other competencies like grammatical, strategic and sociolinguistic competencies. The grammatical competence enables the student to effectively produce language sentences. The field therefore specializes on the building blocks such as the tenses, speech, clauses and how they join up to formulate a proper language sentence. The need for grammatical competency has gradually developed over the years. The grammar development is mainly coordinated and regulated by the set grammatical rules and regulations (Canale, 1998). The sociolinguistic competencies on the other hand regulate the different language interpretation in the socio-diversities. Likewise, the strategic competencies assist the student to effectively use the verbal and the non-verbal signs in communication (Bachman, 1990). The three language competencies assist students to understand how to effectively use our language for different functions. Additionally, the knowledge help them to know the time and place of using our formal and informal speeches. The competencies also assist them to effectively interpret and internalize literature books, narratives and written materials. Effective use of strategic competencies enables students to integrate well with strangers and people with socio-diverse background.
The rising demand for communicative language teaching on our modern society has made the field to gain more prominence than ever. The growing needs for communities’ integration has also made it necessary for people to familiarize themselves with the various language competencies. Different measures have also been established in order to gauge the skills and knowledge competencies. For instance the %uF06C is required in order to measure the grammar, sociolinguistic and strategic competencies (Berns, 1984). Throughout the period the communicative learning teaching advocate for group and team work. This is because the integration enables the team members to learn new ideas on how to effectively communicate with one another. Since the practice acknowledges presence of error during the communication process, it employs effective gap activities together with appropriate problem solving techniques all aimed at bettering the person’s skills and knowledge. The move therefore encourages the learner to participate in the development of skills and competencies which are necessary in life.
It is important to make a communicative language teaching technique a student centered program. The tutor should therefore seek to engage the students in active debates and participation in order to discern their needs appropriately. The move will ensure that the interests and needs of every students are meet sufficiently and in due time. Teachers are therefore advised to gather relevant teaching materials which seek to demonstrate and satisfy the needs and aspirations of his or her students. Use of authentic materials is also encouraged in the teaching program as it enables the student to associate the teachings with the real life situations. The move also assists the learner to effectively understand and use the language in his or her environment. Language teachers can use different teaching techniques in facilitating effective communication. Among the resent mode of language learning process that a teacher might adopt in class includes, interactive sessions. This is where teacher and the students interact with one another with an aim of supposedly creating and integrating different ideas from the participants. The interaction between teachers and students can be used to create a meaningful session where the parties involved exhaustively negotiates and come up with a mutual understanding on language competencies. The session also assists the student to put into practice some of the theoretical language competencies learned. For instance one can manage transforming the input or the language heard into a new practical form through the use of communicative competence.
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The teachers can also opt to use some fundamental language testing techniques in order to gauge how their students are fairing in class. Such tests can be exercised through the issue of assessments. Assessment is a method used to discern the student knowledge and skills (Larsen-Freeman, 1986). It also enables the teachers to know the students ability to practically use the acquired knowledge. Since the student knowledge and judgment keeps on changing, the assessments should be periodic and regularly offered. Evaluations and assessment can therefore be scheduled after every semester or academic year. Such evaluation is effective since they enable the teacher to get the true and fair reflection of his or her students. The assessment enables the teacher to evaluate the performance progress of the students in a given class or year. Through the assessments the teacher is able to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. This is because an effective curriculum will enable student to perform well while ineffective curriculum limits the student’s performances. Additionally, the assessment provides the proper guidelines which monitor the progress of students within a learning institution. Through it the teachers and the [policy and curriculum makers are able to enhance quality education standards in a region or nation. Some institutions have established some rewarding techniques in order to encourage improved performances of the students in schools. The best improved and the top students are in this case motivated to continue with their good work through the gifts and rewards. From the above its clear that assessment is used to assist the institution evaluate its appropriateness. It therefore checks the institution’s direction towards accomplishing its missions.
The institution through the outcome and critical steps of assessment is able to gauge the level and extent of the reported success. Information can thus be gathered to identify if the institution has effectively accomplished its vision. Incase of deviations, appropriate corrective measures may be designed to address the issues. For an assessment process to be complete, it should have inbuilt problem correction mechanisms. This is because the assessment provides inferences for student learning and development. Conclusively, assessment entails defining, collecting, analyzing and interpreting of the possible outcomes in a learning institution. Through assessments the teachers are able to define, choose and design the curriculum scope. The students are then tested using the selected curriculum scope in order to gather and collect relevant information. The student performance therefore acts as the information collected concerning the teaching practice. Thorough revision session is then scheduled in order to assist the students understand and correct the errors made in their previous assessment. The analysis stage therefore assists the student to identify their errors and make appropriate adjustments on the same.
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There are various ways in which a learning institution can use to effectively assess its curriculum progress. Incase the government or an institution wants to evaluate and assess the efficiency of a certain curriculum, it is appropriate to formulate a team or committee. The committee in this case consolidates the assessment outcomes and from it an outcome statement will be formulated. Then the committee will proceed further into auditing the efficiency of the curriculum. Incase the curriculum is deemed inappropriate a pilot instrument will be designed and formulated. Then the pilot curriculum will be run through the auditing process before its findings are incorporated into the original curriculum program. Even after the curriculum amendment is done, it is appropriate for the institution to undertake a continuous assessment program. Alternatively, the assessment can be undertaken as indicated by Megan Oakleaf, 2009 in an iterative assessment cycle. The process identifies that depending on how well the curriculum have succeeded, the committee or the selected team will be required to gather evidence. This evidence will be based mostly on the student assessment performances. Then the team will exhaustively analyze and interpret the gathered evidence after which appropriate decisions will be made. The decision will mainly aim at improving and enhance the current learning system which is currently used. Proper budgetary, implementation and monitoring of the system changes will also be developed in the decision making process. The two programs can be used interchangeably to attain improved educational system in our societies.
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The overall system improvement seeks to ensure skills productivity in the educational systems. The productive skills can be examined by differentiating between the writing and speaking skills in our students. It should be noted that whereas the writing skills uses subordination while the speaking skills uses simple discourse with less information. The speaking skill is mainly characterized with some continuous interactions as students debates on the topic, but the writing skills is mainly based on solitary processes. Whereas the writing skills can be easily referenced on the previously written materials, the speaking skills ought to be transitory (Hicks, D. et al. 1978).
It is important for the teaching staff to develop an efficient mechanism which will efficiently assess oral proficiency among their students. This is because the improvement of oral skills is the only way in which the students can effectively participate and control their learning activities. The teachers can therefore opt to assess the communicative ability periodically or even annually. Oral assessments basically assists the students to upgrade their communicative abilities and thus assist them excel even in other subjects. It assists the students to easily communicate with teachers incase of any difficulty. The assessment therefore not only assists the students to play by the rules, but it also enables them to demonstrate their abilities in the real life situations. The assessment can be in form of an interactive session between the teacher and the student which is mainly undertaken at the end of the class or topic. The assessment therefore strengthens the bonding between the teachers and the students which improves the overall academic performance. It is also true that oral assessment assist in the development of a self-directed learning where both the students and the teachers effectively participate in the learning process. Teachers will in this case exercise their professional autonomy and thus enable the students to coordinate most of their learning debates and programs. This not only build the student communicative abilities, but it ensures that the students becomes more accountable and reliable in their learning activities (Graves, 1994).
The cultural and sociological diversity in Southern Korea increases the communicative difficulties among the students. The sociological diversity makes it hard for the students to have agreed rules to be used in the communicative skills particularly the writing skills. It is therefore advisable for the teachers to use formative assessment program since it reduces anxiety among the students (Littlewood, 1981). The students also feel free to express themselves in class without fear of being sidelined for having deviated from the linguistic accuracy. Teachers in this case involve the students in deciding the content and the format of the test to be done (Ellis, 1994). It is believed that in order to consider a system a self or student-driven one, then most of the decisions ought to be undertaken by the students themselves. Active participation of the students in the learning process will be effective in that they will feel motivated to learn and gain from it. The teacher also allows the students to discuss with low tones but answer the questions independently. In such a way the linguistic deviations is greatly reduced. The move also enhances better understanding of the test among the students.
The teaching staff should make sure that the students do not negatively view tests and assessments. This is because immediately the students feels that way, improving language will be an extremely hard task. A positive perception of tests and assessments will therefore assist the students to improve their grades in schools. In order to facilitate better and quality results, the students will require a good test taking skills which will help them answer the questions appropriately and exhaustively (Cartelli, 2006). The assessment of the oral communication skills is difficult as it is characterized by the examiners judgment on the speaker’s ability. It is therefore appropriate to ensure that all the raters are sufficiently trained in order to ensure similar judgments. Oral testing is also a time consuming process and therefore requires timing, for instance each students can be given ten minutes to finish their presentation. Despite the problematic effects which can be caused by oral testing, it should emphasize in the learning institutions. The globalization and integration of people from all over the world makes it important for the South Korean students to fluently be able to communicate in English. Much work is therefore required in the area discourse so as to ensure that the residents are able to freely integrate with people from the English speaking countries.
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In conclusion, it is significantly important to improve both the written and oral communicative skills in the South Korean institutions. Increasing globalization and other international integration of people makes this crucial to the Korean people. Teachers should therefore use effective teaching techniques which aim at encouraging students to actively participate in language education. Effective assessment process should also be put in place in order to ensure proper understanding. Adequate evaluation of the existing communicative language teaching in the country should be done and proper amendment and improvements should be implemented. A system which advocates for a student-centered learning process should be established in order to improve the current situation in the schools.
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