Free Custom «Canadian Residential Schools» Essay Paper

Free Custom «Canadian Residential Schools» Essay Paper
What is nation? Why people treat each other in a different way because of nation? Why in a History of a World there are such dramatic accidents as World War II, which was caused by a great villain of 20-th century ? Adolf Hitler, whose idea was that Arian should rule the world, and other nations should be slaves or die. Remember another great and positive person of a History of a World, it?s Martin Luther King. Absolutely kind and brave man, he was the first to protect the rights of Afro-American people. Everybody remember his always bright and full of hope speeches, telling us that there should be no difference what color your skin is, everybody has rights to live in a peace and respect. And now let?s think why we are having a special attitude to foreigners, to their traditions, to the way they live? Sometimes the attitude is good, sometimes it?s indifferent, the most scariest when it?s negative. Europeans and Americans are irritated by some of Asian?s traditions and mentality, thinking they can work it out in a better way, if to enforce Asians to live as Europeans. And this is what we are to discuss in this essay. In 1928, a government official predicted Canada would end its "Indian problem" within two generations. Church-run, government-funded residential schools for native children were supposed to prepare them for life in white society. But the aims of assimilation meant devastation for those who were subjected to physical, sexual and emotional abuse. Decades later, aboriginal people began to share their stories and demand acknowledgement of ? and compensation for ? their stolen childhoods. Historically, it was founded in the 19th century. The Canadian Indian residential school system was intended to force the assimilation of Canadian Aboriginal peoples into European-Canadian society. The purpose of the schools, which separated children from their families, has been described by many commentators as "killing the Indian in the child." Funded under the Indian Act by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, a branch of the federal

Canadian Residential Schools

government, the schools were run by churches of various denominations ? about sixty per cent by Roman Catholics, and thirty per cent by the Anglican Church of Canada and the United Church of Canada, along with its pre-1925 predecessors, Presbyterian, Congregationalist and Methodist churches. The foundations of the system were the pre-confederation Gradual Civilization Act (1857) and the Gradual Enfranchisement Act (1869). These assumed the inherent superiority of British ways, and the need for Indians to become English-speakers, Christians, and farmers. At the time, Aboriginal leaders wanted these acts overturned. The attempt to force assimilation involved punishing children for speaking their own languages or practicing their own faiths, leading to allegations in the 20th century of cultural genocide and ethnocide. There was widespread physical and sexual abuse. Overcrowding, poor sanitation, and a lack of medical care led to high rates of tuberculosis, and death rates of up to 69 percent. Details of the mistreatment of students had been published numerous times throughout the 20th century, but following the closure of the schools in the 1960s, the work of indigenous activists and historians led to a change in the public perception of the residential school system, as well as official government apologies, and a (controversial) legal settlement.

History of Residential Schools

The first residential schools were set up in the 1840s with the last residential school closing in 1996. Their primary roles were to convert Indigenous children to Christianity and to "civilize them". In the early 1800s, Protestant missionaries opened residential schools in the current Ontario region. The Protestant churches not only spread Christianity, but also tried to encourage the Indigenous peoples to adopt agriculture as a way to ensure they would not return to the their original lifestyle after graduation. For graduates to receive individual allotments of farmland, however, would require changes in the reserve system, something fiercely opposed by First

Canadian Residential Schools

Nations governments.
In 1857, the Gradual Civilization Act was passed by the Legislature of the Province of Canada with the aim of assimilating First Nations people. This Act awarded 50 acres (200,000 m2) of land to any indigenous male deemed "sufficiently advanced in the elementary branches of education" and would automatically "enfranchise" him, removing any tribal affiliation or treaty rights. With this legislation, and through the creation of residential schools, the government believed indigenous people could eventually become assimilated into the population. After confederation (1867), Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald commissioned Nicholas Flood Davin to write a "Report on Industrial Schools for Indians and Half-Breeds" (now known as the "Davin Report"), which was submitted to Ottawa in March 1879 and led to public funding for the residential school system in Canada. In 1850, attendance became compulsory by law for all children aged 6 to 15. Children were often forcibly removed from their families, or their families were threatened with prison if they failed to send their children willingly. Students were required to live on school premises. Most had no contact with their families for up to 10 months at a time because of the distance between their home communities and schools, and sometimes had no contact for years. They were prohibited from speaking Aboriginal languages, even among themselves and outside the classroom, so that English or French would be learned and their own languages forgotten. They were subject to corporal punishment for speaking their own languages or for practicing non-Christian faiths, policies that have given rise to allegations of cultural genocide. After the Second World War, the Canadian Family Allowance Act began to grant "baby bonuses" to families with children, but ensured this money was cut off if parents refused to send their children to school. This act, then, added yet another coercive element pressuring indigenous parents to accept the residential school system. Compulsory attendance at the residential schools had ended by 1948, following the 1947 report

Canadian Residential Schools

of a Special Joint Committee and subsequent amendment of the Indian Act; although this did little to improve conditions for those attending. Until the late 1950s, residential schools were severely underfunded, and relied on the forced labour of their students to maintain their facilities. The work was arduous, and severely compromised the academic and social development of the students. Literary education, or any serious efforts to inspire literacy in English or French, were almost non-existent. School books and textbooks, if they were present at all, were drawn mainly from the curricula of the provincially funded public schools for non-Aboriginal students, and teachers at the residential schools were notoriously under-trained. In 1969, after years of sharing power with churches, the Department of Indian Affairs took sole control of the residential school system. In Northern Alberta, parents protested the DIA decision to close the Blue Quills Indian School. In the summer of 1970, they occupied the building and demanded the right to run it themselves. Their protests were successful and Blue Quills became the first Native-administered school in the country. It continues to operate today as the Blue Quills First Nations College. In the 1990s, it was revealed that many students at residential schools were subjected to severe physical, psychological, and sexual abuse by teachers and school officials. Several prominent court cases led to large monetary payments from the federal government and churches to former students of residential schools. The last residential school, White Calf Collegiate, was closed in 1996. A settlement offered to former students came into effect on September 19, 2007.

Residential Schools: The Living Apology

What is a living apology? It began in 1993 when the Primate of the Anglican Church of Canada apologized to Aboriginal Anglicans for the church?
s role in Indian residential schools. Since then, our church has worked to live out this apology and improve relationships between Aboriginals and non-Aboriginals. We?re focusing on self-determination, justice, and healing

Canadian Residential Schools

through ministries like the Anglican Healing Fund and the National Indigenous Anglican Bishop.

Who are We and What Can We Become?

The time has come to end our complicity in mass murder. Our exposure of the Canadian genocide has simultaneously indicted the social order that gave rise to it. Euro-Canadian Christian society as a whole stands condemned in the dock alongside those persons who ran the Indian residential schools, sterilized and murdered children, spread smallpox, and dug mass graves. Despite their best efforts to ignore this fact and contain the whole matter with pseudo ?apologies?, the Canadian government and its partner Catholic, Anglican and United churches now face the same kind of historical reckoning that Nazi Germany did after its defeat in 1945: an awakening to their own criminal nature. On April 20, 2007, Canada and those churches suffered a fundamental moral defeat in Parliament, when the first cabinet minister in Canadian history publicly acknowledged that untold thousands of children had died in Christian Indian residential schools. The extent of this defeat has yet to be appreciated by most Canadians, or even indigenous people. But its impact is nevertheless reverberating throughout every level of society and undermining the very basis of Canada ?s existence. The question now is how to draw the larger conclusions of this defeat in order to reinvent Canada from the top down, and the bottom up, with a basic purpose: the establishment of a decolonized, secular, and genuinely democratic federation of sovereign nations: The Republic of Kanata.

Shedding the Past, Creating a Future

Canada has never been allowed to become a sovereign and democratic nation because of its historical role as a resource base and captured market for first the British and then the American empire. That dependency required that Canada remain frozen as a colonial, church-dominated, semi-feudal society: a condition that has caused the sustained genocide of indigenous peoples

Canadian Residential Schools

and the destruction of their lands, and now threatens the lives of all of us. The two attempted democratic revolutions in our history ? the abortive rebellions in 1837 in Upper and Lower Canada, and the Metis Insurrection of 1885 in the Red River basin ? had as their common aim the ending of an Imperial oligarchy and the creation of a democratic Republic in which aboriginals and Europeans could co-exist equally. The crushing of both rebellions ensured that oligarchy and apartheid would remain the political norm in Canada. And yet, the same vision of freedom that propelled these revolts had been first offered by the eastern Six Nations to the arriving Europeans through the ?Two Road Wampum? Great Law of Peace, in which both cultures would share the land and not seek to dominate or conquer the other. That offer was rejected not by Europeans as a whole, but by the religious and commercial elites who ran the foreign policy of both the French and British Empires, especially during the European Religious Wars of the formative 17th century. Time and again, the Catholic and Protestant churches subverted peaceful relations between whites and natives, and among aboriginal nations such as the Huron and Iroquois, as part of their plan to exterminate all non-Christian peoples and take their land. In the words of the Jesuit missionary Jean Brebeuf, ?There can be no peace or parity between the savages and Christians. This is required by our Faith and the fur trade.? Canada as we know it has arisen on the basis of this basic philosophy of Christian Superior Dominion. There is still no equality between natives and non-natives in Canada because of an apartheid Indian Act that relegates ?Indians? to a separate and inferior status, and holds most of them in a state of permanent sickness, landlessness and poverty on their own lands. Such permanent internal colonialism is required by the foreign and domestic corporate interests that run Canada as a fuel pump and watering hole. Quite simply, in a neo-colonial regime like Canada , where ?the Crown? legally owns all the land, native people must continue to be killed off, legally and methodically, for such theft to continue. A constant aboriginal death rate twenty times the national average is the deadly proof

Canadian Residential Schools

of this regime. This genocidal reality will never change in Canada as it is presently constituted, since the maintenance of natives, and the poor generally, as a disempowered cash cow for others to exploit is an institutionalized part of Canadian society. The nine billion dollar Indian Affairs industry requires a sick, dependent aboriginal populace, and a compliant class of collaborating native elites to administer this sickness. For the resulting totalitarian control of native people at every level is precisely what resource-hungry corporations need to take the last remnants of oil, timber, minerals and water from what is still aboriginal land. Such a structurally criminal regime cannot be tinkered with or reformed, resting as it does on the oppression of most of the population, whether native or non-native. The existence of Canadians as ?subjects of the Crown? under the ultimate authority of one person ? a Governor-General accountable only to a foreign monarch ? amounts to a state of legal slavery utterly repugnant to democracy and sovereignty. ?The only way to reform a colonial system is by dismantling it? said the great Irish nationalist, Bernadette Devlin. And the key to dismantling the Canadian oligarchy is to establish responsible government by severing ties with the English monarchy and creating a federated and secular Republic of sovereign indigenous nations with full public ownership of the economy, the land, and all its resources. In short, every vestige of the system that spawned genocide in Canada needs to be abolished, if we are serious about ending its legacy and doing justice to aboriginal people and residential school survivors. We believe that the original vision of the Two Road Wampum is still possible to enact in our land: of equality and living justice between all our nations. But to build this dream, we must first dismantle that which has prevented it.

A Program for Ending Genocide

Legal genocide in Canada has rested historically on three pillars: a colonial political oligarchy under the authority of the English Crown; a powerful, unaccountable and state-protected

Canadian Residential Schools

religious oligarchy in the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches, and later, the state-created United Church; and a foreign-controlled, dependent economy. To dismantle the root causes of genocide in Canada, we must replace all three of these systems, through a process of active de-construction and reconstruction: undoing what caused the wrong and building an altogether new political and social regime in its place. To commence, our general aim must be the following steps of ?decolonization and de-construction? in order to lay the basis for a true democratic and secular Republic: I. Politically: Active disaffiliation from the English Crown and the Canadian state and its courts; II. Spiritually: Disestablishment of the Roman Catholic, Anglican and United Church of Canada; and III. Socially: De-corporatizing our economy and establishing local, self-sufficient economies under public ownership. A real Program of Justice for all victims of genocide in Canada must restore social equality, the health of the land, and democratic sovereignty of all nations within Kanata , through these and other measures: I. Politically: 1. Abolish the office of the Governor-General, disavow all Oaths of Allegiance to the British Crown, and issue a formal Declaration of Independence from the Crown. 2. Establish a new Constitution of the Republic of Kanata. Reconstitute Canada as a federated and secular Republic of Kanata, based on a recognition of the root title sovereignty of all indigenous nations and of the common ownership by all citizens of the economy, wealth, lands and resources of Kanata.
3. Abolish the Canadian armed forces, the Indian Act, the federal and provincial courts, the Senate, the RCMP, and the Indian and Northern Affairs department and their puppet aboriginal agencies.

Canadian Residential Schools

4. Create a new standing army based on popular citizen militias. 5. Establish popular, indigenous courts of law. II. Spiritually: 1. Tax the churches: Revoke the charitable tax-exempt status of the Roman Catholic, Anglican and United Church, nationalize all church property and land, audit and assess all payments owed by these churches to the people and indigenous nations since their inception, and return all lands and effects stolen by these churches from native people. 2. Revoke the legal charters and legislation governing the Roman Catholic, Anglican and United Church of Canada, and thereby end their official, legal status. 3. End diplomatic recognition of the Vatican and expel the Papal Nuncio. 4. Separate church and state: no funding for religious schools or churches, no religious oaths or functions connected to the state, no state protection for clergy or churches (ie, revoke sections 176 and 296 of the Criminal Code of Canada). 5. Establish a public, international inquiry into crimes of these churches against native people, including in Indian residential schools, with the power to subpoena, try and jail offenders.

III. Socially

A Jubilee Campaign to restore the land and economy to the people: 1. Cancel all debts and mortgages, and return all land to its original owners. 2. Place banks, money supply and credit under public ownership and control. 3. Impose a 100% tax on all wealth gained by inheritance, interest and speculation, and abolish all income tax. 4. Establish a maximum wage and redistribute all surplus income to the lower paid. 5. Collect all back taxes owed by corporations and impose a special tax on the super wealthy and on corporate profits. 6. Abolish foreign ownership of the economy.

Canadian Residential Schools

7. Abolish all land speculation and the commercial trading in land. 8. Nationalize all resources. 9. Socialize all housing, medicine, education and transportation, and make these services freely available to all people. 10. Create Local Exchange and Trading (LET) networks across Kanata to decentralize and democratize the economy, abolish money and credit, and harmonize humanity with the earth. A Gaia Campaign to restore the health and harmony of the land: 1. Impose a Green Tax on all privately owned vehicles in order to phase out their use. 2. Abolish nuclear power and the uranium industry. 3. Develop wind, solar and tidal energy industries. 4. Phase out petrol vehicles, and replace with non-polluting, mass-transit systems. 5. Immediately nationalize all polluting industries and abolish or eco-convert them. 6. Legally limit the size of all land ownership to no larger than 100 hectares. 7. Collectivize all farming and agriculture, and abolish all pesticides and herbicides. 8. Abolish the sale and commercialization of water: Provide free, universal access to water through the establishment of public ownership over all water resources. In conclusion I would like to say that a big problem of Europeans and Americans is that thinking of life standards they are not consider other facts as importance of foreigners life attitude. And thinking like ?If should live the way I live? is leading to such drama as we have discussed above. What is the worth of all it when children suffer, living away among rude and mean people who don?t respect and treat them like dogs, what is the worth of it all when parents are dying to see their children, refusing to split apart with their children they?re forced to go in a jail. What is the worth of it when children die of suffering? Seems to me this little ?War? against Aboriginals, against their nation is alike of a World War II. Moreover, it?s the biggest mistake and a sin.



Our Customers' Testimonials

Current status


Preparing Orders


Active Writers


Support Agents

Order your 1st paper and get discount Use code first15
We are online - chat with us!