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Karl Marx lived between 1818 to 1883 and the legacy he left behind was not only reflecting on the philosophical perspectives but h was best understood as a revolutionary whose work and studies inspired a number of regimes especially those that were communists within the twentieth century. When you try to reminiscence on the number of people who in one way or the other have influenced the modern society, it is impossible to come up with one who matched his qualities and achievement, we can say that he was outstanding and spectaculars (Wood 2004). Karl Marx who was initially trained to become a philosopher decided to turn away from the philosophical way of life during his mid twenties to take politics and economics as his new fields of interests. Despite his desertion from the philosophical field, a number of his later works still elicit debates especially in the social sciences and the philosophical history. The same applies to political philosophy and moral philosophy. The ideas that Marx came up with based on pure equity. He believed that the world should be made up individuals who were on the same level both socially, economically and politically. He considered a world where all the people were equal. A number of scholars can argue that these theories were very impractical but they very good (Kreis 2009).
Karl Marx’s ultimate goal was to ensure that poverty was eliminated from the surface of the earth and each and every person would enjoy the privileges presented by the world without any restriction. The communist nations put into practice these teachings by Karl Marx which indicated that all men were equal and their governments practiced it (Torrance 2005). Karl Marx tends to define the society in relation o the structures that makes it. In relation to the teachings by Marx, the society is considered to be very complex when it is compared with the government and its forms of operations. In every society, there is a specific unique relation that it is embodied between those considered the affluent class which in this regard controls the means of production and the working class which entirely relies on working in order to survive. This indicated that the working class group of individuals for it to survive; it has to sell its labor services to those who own the means of production i.e. the dominant class (Fromm, Marx & Bottomore 2004).
According to Marx, this working class group of individuals is governed by those who are affluent and elites (Kreis 2009). The ideology of discoursing cultural and political elements within the society has however been the most influential one. To Marx, he considered that there are various repulsive elements and mechanisms within every community that can be able to bring into control and bring into manageable positions the tensions that are inexistence within the society especially between the various classes present. Some of the institutions that can be used are the police, the military and the law courts. However, he considers the use of force by the government in order to calm down the tension in society to be a very inefficient way of stabilizing the relations of these classes and a very costly exercise (Malcolm & Wheatley 2007). Marx considers ideology to be the only way that peace and unity can prosper in within a society, to him, ideology is works well than set laws since every person will carry a perception of a society that he considers right and which he would wish to inhabit. Ideologies are considered as set ideas which present both men and women a position which they occupy within the society which is inevitable, necessary for the society to function normally and which is natural.
Most will concur with the fact that ideology has received a lot of attention by many scholars. some scholars tend to use the definition and understanding presented by Karl Marx (Marxists) while other disagree with this definition and opt to stick to the no Marxist point of view (Torrance 2005). These thus brings to our attention that when defining the term ideology, we will face numerous definitions which various scholars have brought forward in relation to their understanding of what the term refers to. Some definitions have presented men as producers of own ideas and conceptions this is often affected by the environment in which they finds themselves and the forces they are encountered with.
Kreis (2009) considers the non existence of consciousness if there is no conscious in a person. This thus refers to the existence of men due to their numerous processes they come into contact with during their socialization processes. This therefore means that if men are presented upside down, then there ideologies are obscured and their existence is as a result of their historical processes of life just as in the case of the retina inverting objects. Ideology presents the ruling class to posse’s ideas that are exclusively an epoch of their ideas. This is a class which symbolizes the material ruling force of the society. In addition to this, this is the class that constitutes the intellectual power of the society. It is a class without which the working class will not survive because there would be no one to sell their labor to because the dominant class in the society is the class that contains the means of production especially the mental production (Fromm, Marx & Bottomore 2004). In simple terms this means that without the ruling class, there is no existence. However, this is not true because there is a lot of exaggeration and the illustrations presented here portray the ruling group because they are not the mental force of the society.
Karl Marx’s critique of capitalism
In many writing that was written by Karl Marx, he fiercely condemns capitalists tendencies in the economy. Karl Marx theory shows radicalism that he held toward the capitalists. According Karl Mark, capitalist should be done away with not just because it exploits workers but also it has no place in the world. Marx believed that capitalist would not last for along period of time. Capitalism according to Marx would soon collapse and pave way for socialism. Karl Marx is one of the greatest advocates for the socio-economics. According to the view of Karl Marx, the economy should function to benefits all people in the society as opposed to benefiting few people. Karl Mark just like the Adams Smith argued that the capitalists in the competitive markets provides services and the products not because of their benevolence or humanity but because their want to benefit (Giddens, 2003).
According to the Karl Marx, capitalists own the factors of production such as land, capital and the entrepreneurial skills. The factors of production are used by the capitalist to make profits from selling the services and the products they produce. On the other hand, the capitalists sort the services of the laborers who sell their services in the production of goods to the capitalists. The Karl Marx castigates the move by the capitalists to engage workers in the production of the products because of mainly of two reasons. The first reason is that the capitalists directly supervise the workers in the production endeavors and therefore the workers have no freedom to make decision on their own. Another reason as to why Karl Mark bitterly condemns capitalists’ tendencies in the economy is due to the fact that the workers who engage in the actual production of the products have no rights over those products. All the property rights on the products produced is enjoyed by the capitalists (Cohen, 2008).
According to the Marxist theory, the controls over which the capitalists have over the workers and in turn the products produced by those workers would make the capitalist ensure that the value that the workers add to the products is less than that what the workers receive in wages. This shows that the workers in the capitalist societies are not properly rewarded for the efforts they put in the production of products. Marx calls the better pay of the worker; the pay should be proportional to the efforts applied in production by the worker if not more. Capitalist argues that the desire of the capitalists is to increase the surplus-value in the production of the product as a result of paying low wages to the workers. The capitalist according to the Karl Marx ensure that the market size increase to benefit more from the sale of the products produced by the workers (Marx, Engels & Berman, 2011).
Karl Marx argues that the desire of the capitalists is to generate more profits from the sale of the products in the market as opposed to the desire to improve the welfare of the human beings. The capitalists according to the Jarl Marx induces demand in the market for the products they produce in order to woo the customer to buy their products as thus meeting their goal of maximizing profits. It is interesting to note that the customers may not require the products produced by the capitalists but the capitalists engage in practices that makes the product appealing to the customers. Some of the ways in which capitalists induces demand in the market is through engaging in sale promotional activities such as advertisement to make their products appealing to the customers (Cohen, 2008).
Like Adams Smith, Karl Marx condemns capitalist tendencies in the economy as they see it as a way of exploiting workers. According to the words of Adams Smith, “labor is irksome.” This means that the laborers are alienated, dehumanized and exploited by the capitalists in the production of services and products. Karl Marx was against the idea where the minority of the people controls the wealth of the country and the majority of the people are languishing in poverty. In Marx views the worker who actually create the wealth enjoyed by the capitalists are the majority but very poor due to the low wages they receive from the capitalist as a result of production of products (Hill, 2007).
Marx criticizes the capitalists’ tendencies due to the fact that the economic oppression being propagated by the capitalists would lead to the political oppression of the workers. The capitalist would use police and other law enforcement agencies to protect their interests. The capitalists would use the police to ensure that the property rights they hold for the products produced by workers is protected. The political leaders would also ensure that contracts are awarded unilaterally to the capitalists. The oppression according to Karl Marx would go a notch higher where the religion would be used by the capitalist to propagate oppression to the workers. The religious workers and the intellectual would be paid directly to justify the existing economic arrangement in the society (Cohen, 2008).
Karl Marx believed also that any economic arrange that is oppressive will author its own destruction. According to the Karl Marx, the oppressed that is the worker will revolt against the system and therefore the system would finally collapse. Karl Marx views capitalism as a transitional stage that would pave for a more superior economic arrangement known as socialism where all the resources of the country would be held by the nation and not private individual for the benefit of all her citizens (Eden, 2011).
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