The Harappa civilization existed in the Indus river valley in Punjab and Sindh are of the India sub continent back as early as the third millennia of the B.C or around 2500-1600.C. According to the ruins found of their civilization they were a group of people who built well organized town that even included plumbing systems and complicated indoor toilets. The group seemed as a peaceful lot as there is no indication of any military activity. The group had an organized system and is believed to have had a centralized political leadership with various economic activities. It’s not well known what why they declined but it’s believed the major reason for its decline was a result of decline in weather patterns that led to the migration to other areas like the Haryana and the Gujarat that had more water supply.
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The civilization had various activities that led to them building brick cities. These included agricultural activities and commerce which mainly entailed trade with other neighboring cultures like the Sumer in the southern Mesopotamia also known as Iraq I the modern day. The towns had well paced and designed streets, drainage systems and other facilities that included fortified walls and halls for meeting. They spun cotton, had wheat and rice for food and stamps for recognizing property. Other crops existed and they domesticated for use and conumption of their products.
Experts have not been able to translate the inscription on the artifacts found on the archaeological sites of these civilization but according to the marking and some of the remains they tend to relate to the modern day Hinduism and its believed to have been the heritage of the Dravidian population which are the dominant group in the south of India and generally have a darker skin in comparison to the northern Indian people who are lighter skin in comparison and generally referred to as the Arya group.
The Harappa civilization is believed by the historians to have ended abruptly but the genuine reason to why is not known although theories are there which point towards an invasion by invasion by groups from either the western or the central Asia. The earlier theory is to have been believed the civilization was made primitive people who were invaded by the more civilized ‘Arya’ group of people.
But with the discovery of the Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro ruins changed everything as it now became obvious that the civilization unlike the previous theory, it was organized and civilized. These discoveries changed the theory to the Harappa people were very organized and civilized people who were invaded by a nomadic barbaric group and this may have contributed to the end of this civilization. This theory is also suupported by fact that remains of unburied bodies of people were found on the ruins on Mohenjo-Daro which further supported this theory.
In the 20th century research shows maybe some other factors may have contributed to their decline for example the environment. This is due to scientists whose studies show that the decrease in the size of the river Ghaggar Hakra. Due to the decline of the river the result was a cooler and much drier climate that was not favorable to their lifestyle and culture. As a result they are believed to have immigrated to the more watered region of the Ganga and the Yamuna rivers that are in the east of the Gujarat and Haryana regions as implied by the recent excavations in towns in the areas. Hence they may have migrated and influenced the culture of the people in this area.
The Harappa civilization thrived in the late millennia’s B.C and lived in an organized manner with all the facilities of any organized society like political leadership, trade, agriculture and rearing of animals. Due to this they thrived in all activities leading to the construction of their cities but were forced to abandon this area due to the fact of rapid change in climate that resulted in a drier area. This led to the migration to regions in the India sub continent where they eventually influenced both culture and religion.