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Nicotine Dependence

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Compare and discuss the two somewhat contradictory views on the nature of nicotine dependence.

The nature of nicotine remains unclear to many professionals, even cardiologists. There has been a debate on whether to term tobacco use and nicotine dependence a diseases. But World Health Organization (WHO) has classified smoking as a diseases and is globally known. According to Balfour, Benowitz, Fagerstrom, Kunze and Keil (2000) in their report Diagnosis and treatment of nicotine dependence with emphasis on nicotine replacement therapy, research has shown that nicotine does not cause myocardial infarction when taken in the form of pharmaceutical products.

The contradictory view of nicotine dependence is its characteristics of both tolerance and withdrawal symptoms. Nicotine dependence is caused by cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, cigar or pipe use. According to Royal College of physicians (2000) nicotine use does not cause intoxication or intense euphoria, but does have a complex physiological impact which creates dependency reinforced by withdrawal (p. 184).  

Determine to what degree, if any, a smoker should be held accountable for his or her addiction to nicotine. Explain your viewpoint.

The issue of smokers held responsible to their addiction to nicotine has been debated recently. Everybody should be accountable to the result of their own actions. Smokers thus are accountable for whatever harms they cause as a result of smoking cigarette. According to Blomgren (2003) “the risk for smoking increases three-fold if a first-degree biological relative smokes. Twin and adoption studies indicate that genetic factors contribute to the onset and continuation of smoking, with the degree of heritability equivalent to that observed with alcohol dependence” (p. 356).

Smokers should consider the vices associated with smoking either to the smokers themselves or to the environment. It should be noted that smoking not only harms to the individual who smoke but also the surrounding environment. This is because, they to cause more harm to the life’s of those whose are nearby. This is true since they pollute and consequently cause sicknesses. 

Describe your understanding of the major social, political, and economic ramifications associated with findings of deception perpetrated by the tobacco industry and cigarette manufacturers.

Tobacco industry and cigarette manufacturers have major social, political, and economic ramification. This industry has both advantages and disadvantages to the society. It contribution to the economy growth has raised issues of whether to do away with them or not. From the social point of view this industry has millions of people who interact with one another and thus contributing to the social welfare among the members of the society. This industry also do have political ramification, because smokers are members of society and they do determine politics in one way or the other.

Economical ramification of tobacco industry is obvious. First of all this industry has created employment too many people and these people also have dependants. Also the tobacco industry contributes large share of government’s revenue through taxation. Due to these facts, it is clear that tobacco industry plays major role in economical growth.

Would American society be better off if the tobacco industry was completely destroyed? Explain your viewpoint.

American society would be better off if the tobacco industry was completely destroyed. This is because it has more negative impacts than the benefits it poses to the society. For instance, the health risk is too high and many lives continue to be lost through smoking. Economically, even though the industry is contributing but the amount used in treating diseases caused by tobacco smoking is too high compared to the tax collected from the industry. Also the smoking industry has negative social impacts, because it influences moral values of the smokers.

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