IS management is related to the SWOT analysis used in academics and business management. SWOT analysis involves the identification of Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of an organization or a body corporate. It is a strategy that is important in the identification of development opportunities. It is a component of strategic management and the key managers of an organization need to be aware of the meaning of this term.
S - Strengths of a firm or the absolute advantage an organization has over other organizations in similar field.
W - Weaknesses of a firm in relation to other organizations that place an organization at a disadvantage.
O - Opportunities of an organization to expand and grow by tapping the resources available to it.
T - Threats or potential trouble for the organization. These are usually from without the organization.
SWOT is therefore a major planning tool used by managers to identify factors that are favorable and unfavorable to an organization in the undertaking of a certain project.
Presentation of the stars situation
STARS is a rescue organization whose new manager has to work hard to raise enough funds to keep it afloat, has to restructure the whole staff department to ensure smooth running of the organization and to top ensure delivery of quality services to the society.
The new manager has to plan carefully and come up with a rescue plan for the organization which is on the verge of collapse. At the beginning there is lack of enough facilities to run the organization and barely enough funds to keep it afloat. With a diligent and committed workforce he is able to apply the SWOT principle to bring the organization on its feet.
It-information technology problems.
IT stands for information technology. Information technology is to acquire, process and store information, pictures and data in a microelectronic form. IT involves designing, installation and management of databases. IT is of great importance in today’s economic world as it speeds up rate of work and reduces mistakes associated with manual performances.
Problems facing information technology.
- Shortage of competently skilled staff: Managers must ensure that they have competent and enough IT staff and this is not an easy undertaking especially in small scale companies and companies with old and obsolete machines. Expertise for older systems is becoming increasingly unavailable as more people opt to train with the new and advanced technology. Managers must also ensure that old IT staff is trained to update their knowledge on the current technology. This is a very expensive undertaking for most organizations.
- Lack of support from management: IT managers have to fight and compete for resources from executive management. To do this effectively, IT managers have to learn to communicate effectively with the executive staff and this requires a lot of effort.
- Lack of sufficient funds: Sometimes IT personnel don’t get what it asks for in fiscal issues. They have to hammer in to their seniors what the organization is losing if certain projects are not undertaken. For fiscal allocation to take place, the returns of projects are weighed against time. Technology investment might not yield as fast as desired and therefore they are waylaid for faster income yielding projects.
- Rapid change in technology which renders most technology obsolete: Technology changes fast. Technology change might be so fast that an organization is not able to keep up with the change. This is because of the hefty fiscal investment involved and time involved in research and development.
- Medical-IT issues: Sometimes medical or business personnel need to know and understand IT to be able to work harmoniously. This might not be possible in today’s world where specialization is almost a must.
- Lack of proper It knowledge within the medical field: It is not uncommon to find that most medical experts have no knowledge of IT. To require them to undergo training is very expensive and time consuming.
- Efficient use of IT resources: Most IT resources are misused. Most people do not use IT for the purposes it was created.
Information technology and its evolution
Advantages of information technology
- Time management: IT has made work easier .People can work from anywhere around the world and at any time. This means that businesses can open 24*7 and people choose when it is convenient for them to work. It also means someone who is as far as Africa can shop from the U.K without having to go their in person and have his goods delivered at his doorstep with ease.
- Globalization: IT has made it possible for trade between different countries to take place because it has made the world a global village. Countries separated by language and geographical distance can trade and communicate with ease. The world’s economy has also become a single interdependent entity.
- Job creationist invention has led to creation of new jobs for IT personnel, web designers and maintainers.
- Communication: Video conferencing has enabled face to face communication with people from any corner of the world. Use of mobile phones and internet has also made communication faster and easier as response is instantaneous. This is also cheap.
- Bridging the cultural gap: IT has made it possible for people all over the world to communicate, interact and share information and ideas. This has led to reduced prejudice and discrimination as people increase awareness and share cultures.
- Cost effectiveness: IT has reduced costs incurred in businesses and reducing manual labor and the costs that come with it. This has streamlined businesses and turned them into very profitable ventures once one is able to manage other aspects concerning the business.
Disadvantages of information technology
- Unemployment: With the invention of IT, computers and robots have human like abilities and employees are declared redundant, their services no longer needed as employees opt for machines which are faster, more effective and less costly .All they need is the initial capital outlay and minimal maintenance costs as opposed to humans who are error prone, prone to exhaustion and fatigue and require salaries.
- Lack of job security: Since computers are now doing almost every conceivable piece of work that can be done by humans, many people worry that they will be declared redundant as computers perform more tasks that were originally performed by humans.
- Dominant culture: It is evident that IT has made the world a small global village. The effect of this? Domination of certain cultures which overshadow small cultures with the influence of IT.
- Lack of privacy: While technology has made things easier for most of the world, it has also led to lack of privacy as individuals are worried that with the increased access to information and hacking, their information is at risk of access and tampering.