The policy on terrorism and war designed by United States of American depicts that the war against terrorism is a long term war and the boundaries of this war are nowhere. The terrorist communities are residing in those areas of different nations where they have to made plans according to their relationships with different social and cultural environments. So from their links it is evident that not only the politics and military are affected by terrorism rather social set ups in a nation a country are also suffering a lot due to terrorist activities in their vicinities. So there are different social factors which play a vital role in staging of terrorism.
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There are different allies of US who are fighting against terrorism and one of the major allies of US is Pakistan. Pakistan Army is playing a vital role in war against terrorism. Terrorism is the major cause of law and order problem in the affected areas and even across the globe. So one of the hidden or latent functions is to create a situation of law and disorder when the terrorists succeeded in their mission then it would result in clash of civilizations. This situation helps to analyze the cause of such violations and it would become easy to find out the intruders or the people behind the cutter that either they belong to an organization or it some social group or the violence is the result of religious enmity or it is an ethnic issue. Each violence or terrorist act conveys a message to a nation that what is wrong and where is wrong. Ethnic clashes in the previous century in America and religious clashes in Russia are the result of terrorist activities either they are on part of governments of that very time or on part of states or civilizations with different religions and ethnic origins.
The terrorist acts are being taken placed against innocent people who are residing in the affected area and the boundaries of these activities are not limited to a particular country rather these acts are performed in the neighboring countries and even across the globe as in case of 9/11 in America. The acts involved are bomb blasting, hijacking, target killing of well known personalities, and religious violence. It is keenly observed by Stern that there is need to destroy terrorists in a fast pace in order to prevent them to snatch the hold of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.
The root causes of terrorism are the social factors. A society is composed of different social groups which have different values and traditions. The people in different groups show the act of amalgamation and disjoin according to the changing scenarios. The “disjoin” factor can be the cause of enmity, aggression and violence among them. And this happens only when new values are being introduced which are being disliked in a social set up which ultimately result in terrorist activities. When new values are introduced then a social group divides into two grups i.e. there would be a group for which the new values will be beneficial and the other one would be deprived off from their needs and this group would suffer a state of frustration and everyone knows that injustice or frustration is the root cause of terrorism. Different groups take on the line of terrorism in order to achieve their objectives by hook or by crook. So there are some manifest functions and some latent functions of terrorism.
Another latent function of terrorism is the replacement of prevailing personalities in the political scenario because people or some social or political group doesn’t consider these personalities as their liked one rather they start the campaign to replace them. The sense of rebellion arouses among various groups which ultimately result in the terrorist activities. Individuals in a group are society also try to fight against existing system in order to retain a prominent position in a society and they become the victim of marginalization or triviality in a society same is the case in India where each and every man which is not Hindu becomes the victim of marginalization. So people in such communities try to adopt the terrorism in order to achieve their goals. The emergence of the train bombing group in Spain was the result of marginalization as depicted by Benjamin. One of the latent functions of terrorism is the change of social relationships so terrorists try their best to break the belt of relationships among various social groups. When terrorist succeed in their mission then they use these disintegrated or dismantled people according to their wishes. The present concept of immigration is also the cause of terrorism.
The hold of influential groups or country in a society or across the globe can also be the result of aggressive actions if these groups would deprive the other people or groups. The aggression would arise only if there would be no check and balance of these influential groups. Then the latent function of the terrorist actions would be termed as the salvation from cruel one. Then in this scenario a particular group or country would be considered as a terrorist and it would result in war. One group or country would be fighting against the terrorism and going to suppress the terrorists while the other group will be considering itself as the freedom fighter as in case of Sri Lanka the war of Tamil Tigers. The war of Kashmiris against India is also based on salvation from Indian occupation though the Kashmiris are treated as terrorist as India shouts day and night. So the situational terrorism is the result of some suppression or injustice with a particular group or country.
Secular groups play a vital role in adding their part in terrorism and it doesn’t matter with which religion they have to belong. These groups want to impose their own rules and regulations in a society event in the presence of a strong governmental infrastructuure as it is evident in India and Pakistan. The aggressive action of Hindu fundamentalists against Babry Mosque is the cause of religious enmity with Muslims and same is the case on account of Muslims. Both groups have to take each other at same scale of enmity and this enmity is so severe that even the governments of the two countries are not willing to share the strategic issues.
Economic development is another latent function of terrorism. Only strong economic system of a country can be the cause of the prosperity of the nation or that very country so the terrorists mostly those who are across the boundaries try their best to shatter the economy of a country or a social group. This results in severe problems which are being faced by general public or citizens. In economic development there are some internal factors which also taken into account as the aggressive actions e.g. crimes or frauds during developmental phase and opposing a beneficial project which is suitable for the nation.
War is an ultimate solution to suppress violence but it would also be at the risk of great economic loss. The war of US with Afghanistan is totally a failure and US has got nothing except frustration and dead bodies of the innocent one. The very issue of terrorism can only be dealt with the help of dialogue which is the only and solid way. But aggressive actions of the terrorists forced the bodies to take severe actions in order to soothe their nation. It is a dilemma that the sufferer would suffer twice as in case of 9/11 US government suffered a lot i.e. in terms of financial loss and in terms of human loss. Then in order to stop the very act terrorism America started positive initiative i.e. the war against terrorists in Afghanistan who were involved in 9/11 accident. Though the Muslims in Afghanistan are stick to their sacred act of “Jihad” and Shabana Azmi (Social Activist, MP in India) writes that Jihad has been ridiculed in modern society. Further in India the funding or charity for the Madrasas has been stopped which belong to Wahbia sect as said by Evans. Mahbubani presents the concept of alternative ideologies in order to deal the so-called terrorism.
Military and police cooperation is very essential in order to cope with aggressive activities of terrorists in order to cross the limit of minimum satisfaction as Cohen called ex president of Pakistan Pervez Musharaf the “minimum satisfier”. In order to cope with terrorism there is the need of a severe sort of cooperation among affected nations or countries. The only way to stop insurgencies is to seek the cooperation of inner social groups also and cross border cooperation if the aggressive activities are from other side. But the present situation of war presents that the only solution to terrorism is table talk or dialogue. No one has seen betterment after war rather the situation is going to be more horrible and complex.