Security is a state of freedom from any danger or it is the provision of safety to oneself, organization, institution and private or public premises. Crime rates and mistrust between human beings is a common phenomenon in any society, there are associated mischief in any places where different people from different life categories transact. As a result, there is a crucial need to provide the assurance of safety through provision of security. A nation, premise or an institution may use different strategies to provide itself with security against all the perils. There exist different types of security basing on the common factors such as; training, accountability, terms of employment, legal powers among other factors. The two basic categories of security are private and public security.
According to Dempsey (2007) Private security is a company of security guard who are privately trained and awarded formal employment to provide protection to people, assets or any property. Other hand, public security is a service provide by government or a state to provide protection to its citizens, institutions or organizations to safeguard against any challenge to enjoy their freedom. The two categories usually differ in various aspects but they share the minimum standards (Dempsey 2007). Public security usually undergoes long and comprehensive training compared to private security. They have more legal power to apply the law than the private security which only prevent crime but do not have other powers like exercising arrest. They are accountable to the general public at they are paid from the taxes the public raise though their number is smaller compared to the private security.
There has been a difficulty in establishing the scope where the private security plays its roles. This is because the private security is now playing in points where the public security is expected. There are several reasons but first is the ratio in their numbers. Surveys conducted shows that the number of private security outweighs the public security. As a result, the law of scarcity applies and the public security cannot be found everywhere at the same time. Secondly, the private security works on contract. This makes them carry out their duties effectively compared to the public security who are employed through government agencies. Thirdly, public security has now become reluctant in delivering its duties. This can be attributed to the salary payment and adjustment. In this regard, private security stands a better chance to negotiate bettr terms of services than the public security where the negotiation is very bureaucratic (Brezina, 2009).
According Brezina (2009) the fourth reason is that most private security companies have sophisticated technical equipments than the public security bodies. However, this large depend on the employer companies has others can manage than others. The fifth reason is that the public security is hampered by restrictions in delivering their services. Most of them have their scopes either geographically or authoritatively where they can work or deliver the services. In a very ironical scenarios, public security may fail to turn up in a particular crime scene simply because the staff are not entitled or allowed to play their. As a result, private security has been in the forefront in administering crime prevention at such situations despite the fact that the responsibility belonged to the public security.
Public security is also faced with political restrictions. Power goes alongside the security and public security is directly influenced by politics. Contrarily, private security is not political active hence do not have any political influence making it to deliver at its best without following the political alignments (Brezina, 2009). Another reason for the effectiveness of private security in the places where public security could be expected is the fraud. Public security is being known for taking bribes and they therefore hardly deliver where such unethical incentives are least or totally not there. This is least experienced with the private security systems which take responsibility as a contract rather than just a duty.
Private security companies have been able to engage their guards in the battle fields. However, the recent amendments to Security Chapters have established the modalities in which such companies are contracted to supplement the efforts of the public security (Nemeth, 2005). This can be attributed to the licensing of various companies to provide advanced training equivalent to the state’s military and police.
Nemeth (2005) stated that this allows the private security to a stand a chance to play in the same way the public security does limiting the initial scopes. Consequently, as a result of these and the above reasons, there has no distinction between the roles of the two security providers. To heighten this, the contracting of private security companies has given them licenses to allow their guards put o the police and military combats. They are even allowed to posses aand carry weaponry which did not used to the case. As a result, private security has even been entitled to work in a third-country just like what public security does. This has enhanced further dominance of private security as it has reduced the government’s monopoly of use of force as they own weapons
The changing warfare has been another reason as to why private security is now playing the roles where public security used to play. This has called for outsourcing of the activities to complement the little available efforts from public security sectors. Apart from the outsourcing, private security has attracted support from foreign or domestic support from non-governmental organizations which have donated fund to license and support it to participate in the emerging warfare (Nemeth, 2005).
The liability question arises from the working of the two security sectors. As mentioned before, public security is given powers in their careers to make arrest or administer some punishment in crime scenes. During any protest or operation the public security police are given authority to use force to control the situation. They posses weaponry which gives it the monopoly to be one of the few bodies allowed to carry them. Unlike private security units which they can only prevent crime by other means without much force and they use no weapons. However, the possession and use of force can be applied by the contracted private security companies at the places they are deployed to.
According to Bailey& Dammert (2006) on matters of accountability, every security organ is accountable to its employer. For instance a privately employed security personnel will be accountable to the owner of the company. Public security, the staff is accountable to the ministry of security or to the government. In general, public security is directly affected or controlled by government regulations while the private security is up to the government regulations through the statement of contract signed when licensing is done i.e. the control over the private security is through the company.
Security management has undergone several changes which some have been discussed above. The other factor includes the embracing on technology, regulations on the contracted companies. Universality in standards and training as stipulated by international unions has also played a major role in security management. There every nation should strive to revive their security systems to meet international standards (Bailey & Dammert 2006).