The major trade patterns in the Afro-Eurasian included the Islamic expansion into East Africa. It went through the Indian Ocean basin, and Southern Asia. The Indian Ocean basin and trade winds were beneficial to the traders. The likes of North-East monsoon winds and South-West monsoon helped the traders in determining the directions of trade ships. Trade items to Africa included metals, weapons, textiles, ghee sugar and others. Those from Africa included ivory, slaves, wood and gold. The difference is that trade in the Mongol period only concentrated in areas around Europe and Asia and there was great similarity in the trade items involved.
The Columbian exchange had both positive and negative effects on the Americans. The major negative impacts included the spreading of the lethal disease to the other parts of the America. This was prevalent in the mid 16th century before being subdued later. The positive impact was the introduction of foodstuffs to the region which included commodities like wheat, bananas, rice, wine grapes and other major cash crops were exchanged. The animal’s products that were involved included the sheep, pigs, cattle and even fowl which were of beneficial importance to the locals of that region.
The Spain and Portugal partitioned the non-Christian world into two with Spain occupying the west of the Atlantic while Portugal possessing everything which was to the east of Atlantic. The similarities between the Spain tributary empire and Portugal seaborne empire included the possession of all the commodities available in the territories they were conquering. Portugal possessed less of ammunition for warship and therefore after a short period they were not able to conquer other parts of the Atlantic world. The Portugal Empire was also governed by two emperors and therefore decision making process was lengthy due to misunderstanding between the two parties. The strategy used by the Portuguese was the dominance of the Indian Ocean coastline and overdependence on Arab for their conquest; this was facilitated by the fact that the Portugal Empire had no sufficient warship and ammunitions. They also strategized on the use of agents who found spices for sale in the territory. The Spaniards strategized in the use of virtual slavery in the acquisition of gold and also in safeguarding its territory.
The political stability among the Europeans states allowed the strengthening of regional dynasty and these was enabled by delegation of powers to various dynasties. The decentralization of powers was a prevalent factor in its establishment. The one large European empire was mainly instilled by the centralization of power and this impeded the strength of regional dynasty.
During those days, the slave trade was also undergoing some changes. Some colonialists started to root for the emancipation of the slaves. The sugar plantations were the places where most confrontations occurred between the masters and the slaves. However, in the plantations, the advantage was the free labor provided by slaves.
The political developments of the Mughal involved the union territory which retains its power in the legislative assembly of New Delhi. It had a new traditional stronghold which was based on the Indian national congress. It was involved in trade with the neighboring territories which enhanced its economic stability. The Ming dynasty was involved the institutional innovations which inherently safeguarded the status of the political culture of hegemonic state; the only challenge faced the larger increase in panorama of the change. The political authority was curtailed by the upholding of the traditionally Confucian culture. There was expansion in commercial developments which led to the upcoming of trading organizations and also the novel banking was improved.
The war with Aztecs proved to the Europeans that the outside world had enlightened and therefore they were being offered some resistance and thus had to change tactics or their way of approach. The collapse of the Azttecs enabled the Europeans to have minimal resistance and therefore was able to conquer and assimilate other territories with ease.
Reformation was the movement that demanded for improvement on the existing condition of Catholic Church’s practices with an intention to make a striking change either in the political, social, or religious fields. It was intended to reform the Roman Catholic Church. The Counter Reformation involved a reformation made by the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century in order to respond to the protestant reformation.
The council of Trent instituted the offering of the sacraments which enhanced the nourishment of faith of the pious. This was indeed an ecumenical council and they refute and also condemn the beliefs of the Protestants
The decrees that condemn teachings of Zwingli include the decree number 3 and 5. Mostly, he rejected the Christ present in the Holy Communion and thus denied that the teachings were right. Jean Calvin brought more logic to the doctrines of the church and provided analytical analysis of its structure. He provided with an explanation which was legalistic and important to the standardized articles in the confession of the protestant beliefs.
Martin Luther’s ideas that were criticized by council of Trent were on the matters relating to divine forgiveness of the sins by the Lord and also the non-acceptance of theological teachings in the system. Calvin’s ideas were criticized by the council of Trent as it posed threat of pagans laxity which was then in excess, there was also an argument that the Calvin teachings was based on promoting sexual immorality.
Jesuits are members of the Society of Jesus. It was founded in 1534 by Ignatius Loyola and was dedicated to promoting and supporting of the Catholicism. The major abuses of the Catholic Church include the sex immorality in the church, disrespect to the canons of the church, improper citation of the bibles teachings and the indulgence by the church.
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