Egalitarianism is a school of thought in political philosophy that favors equality of some kind. Its hypothesis states that people should be getting the same and be treated equally to some extent. It tries to bring out the idea that all people are equal in moral worth and fundamental status. Human equality can be cared for in many ways and for many reasons. It maintains that people should be treated as equal who has equal basic worth and dignity with equal moral considerations. In this aspect, non-egalitarians are those with a belief that the people who are born of a higher social class, a favored race or ethnic group are more desirable than the rest. The norms of condition of equality and treatment derive therefore from the equality of status.
Egalitarian sentiment is a theory that was developed to evaluate equality in the distribution of property. John Locke’s theory criticized the theory of property rights as had been introduced by the second treatise government in chapter five. He argued for property right starting from the assumption that explains the ownership of private property. The interpretation by Locke is that God gave the land to us as an obligation. He takes a leap in the section that describes deductively how the assumption of taking from nature for self-preservation that leads to man having property over nothing. In this chapter, he explains that, God has given all men in common the ability to use all world resources. He goes on to explain that people own anything in the state of nature and labor they produce with their bodies. Therefore, any item of natural state that a person manipulates with labor, transfer into his/her possession and it’s labor that makes a margin between what is communally owned and what is privately owned. Locke’s argument for property right is that this is a natural right for human to preserve himself by eating, drinking and taking things from nature.
Locke provides a limitation of property rights and only challenge people to have what they can make good use of before it get wasted commonly known as spoilage proviso. But he goes ahead and encourages those who can take land and improve on it with labor that he has all the right to produce on it he argues that money eliminates the spoilage and waste factor together with the need for land to go round everyone. The limit of amount of property a person can own is at the point that there is still enough left for everyone. This is called sufficiency proviso. He thus needs enough land that that goes round for everyone. Locke points out that in places of not enough land non-owners must provide labor to their owned lands in order to sustain their lives.
Locke was thus a natural activist of man who maintained his duty to God and natural rights to him because it is clear that the only best way to do it is to exploit the land God has given commonly to humanity. By doing this, we add labor to the land commonly owned and the land product is transferred to the person who has done the work. This is the reason why people join the civil society, to safeguard what is given to them by God. The importance for man to safeguard the life, liberty and property is guaranteed and safeguarded to some extent by the authority. It is through labor that common land lying idle becomes more than ten times productive. When land ownership is passed to someone, he/she gets much concerned about it that they become more concerned about its productivity. There is no land that is valuable by itself but it’s only due to the labor applied to it. The concept that brought up the necessity of property right is labor.
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