Diabetes mellitus is a chronic lifelong condition that many people suffer from. It has a bad effect on pancreas`s ability to produce the hormone insulin, which helps the body to extract the nourishing energy from food. When a person suffers from diabetes, it means that insulin, produced by the pancreas, doesn`t function properly and the level of glucose in the blood rise. According to the National Diabetes Statistic Report in 2014, 29 million people in the United States of America, which comprises 9.3% of the whole population, have diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1 in 4 people with diabetes don`t know they have it. In general, according to the National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 8.1 million people in the USA have undiagnosed diabetes comprises.
Three major types of diabetes are distinguished: Type I, Type II, and gestational diabetes.
Type I diabetes is a common form of diabetes among people under age of 20 when the damaged pancreas doesn`t produce insulin. It is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, because Type I diabetes treatment involves a regular injection of the hormone insulin through the skin. Diabetic therapy also requires a diet and exercise in order to avoid the risk of heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and damage to the tiny blood vessels in eyes. The disease may be caused by genetic predisposition or environmental factors and is accompanied with blurred vision, weakness, extreme hunger, frequent urination, and thirst.
When in Type I, the pancreas doesn`t produce insulin, in Type II diabetes the body doesn`t use it properly, causing insulin resistance. This type is more common among adults, but with the epidemic of obese, more kids started to develop Type II diabetes. This type is considered to be a milder form of Type I. Nevertheless, it doesn`t cause less damage to health, including diabetic retinopathy, heart disease, and stroke.
Regarding gestational diabetes, it may occur at any pregnancy stage. However, it is hard to notice peculiar symptoms as normal pregnancy is defined by thirst, a dry mouth and fatigue, which are the symptoms of a high blood sugar level too. If a pregnant woman is diagnosed with gestational diabetes, it doesn`t necessarily mean she had the disease before or will have it in the future.
Nevertheless, a woman should be conscious about the importance of maintaining blood glucose in order to prevent further complications, such as premature birth, polyhydramnios, and pre-eclampsia.
Despite Diabetes mellitus is one of the birth and lifelong defects, it can be treated and controlled. Consult your doctor, keep your blood glucose level near to normal, control your blood pressure, and maintain your healthy lifestyle with planning your diet, taking medication and doing regular exercises. As diabetes is hereditary, it is important to go through a thorough examination before planning a child, and do special laboratory tests to promote both your and your baby`s healthy existence.