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•Number of trainees eligible for program
The training shall target a total of fifty (50) trainees or participants. The number is considered quite sizeable for the eventual population of people the trainees are to influence with their training. This is to say that after the training, the trainees will be spread across geographic areas to ensure that they impact their knowledge wide and far.
The location of trainees shall, therefore, be highly strategic. A simple inclusive mechanism shall be developed whereby the entire community shall be divided into zones. The demarcation shall be done in such a way that the entire catchment area shall be divided into nine (9) zones with representations from the north, south, east, west and central. A sketch of the location is shown below.
The major target audience shall belong to the fundamental level. This is because most senior staff of a number of organizations available has already had similar training on wound care. Those on the lower organizational levels shall, therefore, be given the privilege this time round.
•Minimum/maximum and average level of education
The minimum educational level is post-secondary whereas the rest shall be no clear cut maximum educational level.
•Minimum/maximum and average number of years in position
With regards to number of years in position, there shall only be a maximum cut off point without a minimum cut off point. This way, all people who have not been at post for more than five years can participate.
•Minimum/maximum and average number of years with company
Just as with the cut off point for those who have been in position, there shall be an opening for all people who have been with the company for less than five (5) years. This is because it is hoped that people who have been with the company for over five (5) years have already been through similar training programs.
•Expected entry-level knowledge and skill background
Here, training shall be done from the perspective of the learner. This means that there shall be enough room to accommodate as many knowledge levels of learners as possible. Learners must, therefore, have a general background in health science but upon admission, they shall be grouped depending on their individual levels of performance.
•Previous training related to this training
Previous training shall not be mandatory but candidates with previous training related to wound care shall have a huge advantage as they are more likely to grab concepts faster.
•Average reading level
Extensive reading shall be required during and after the training – more particularly after the training so that trainees can continue to have their personal research on the topics treated. This means that trainees competency in reading shall be checked to ensure that they can match up the task.
•Language or cultural differences among trainees
Issues of health are trans-cultural. This means that health personnel must be in a position to carry out their duties and responsibilities in an atmosphere free from all forms of cultural disparity. For this reason, it is expected that there shall be a general approach that welcomes all views, diversity and differences from different cultural background. Particular emphasis shall be given to cultural groups that reside in areas around the location of the training program.
•Trainee motivation and job satisfaction
The major form of motivation to be given to trainee is non-tangible motivation that shall come in the form of their ability to perform tasks on wound care that they would not perform before. The avenue shall, therefore, be created for trainees to receive instant feedback on their performances so that their improvement rate shall be a form of motivation and surety for their job satisfaction.
•Attitude toward training
Attitude towards training shall be a formal one. This means that there shall be strict rules and regulations to be followed so that there can be a systematic way of assessing the impact of the training program.
•Special physical characteristics of trainees relevant to training
Trainees are not expected to harbor any specific physical characteristics but indeed since this is wound care training, a trainee with a wound may be used for exemplification.
•Special interests of trainees relevant to training
Trainees are expected to have a lot of interest in health care and with particular emphasis on the treatment of wounds. Under no circumstance should trainees be cold towards people with wounds.
•Specific biases of trainees relevant to training
The only biases that may prevail are in terms of academic and professional qualification and no other means or form of biases towards trainees.
•Computer skills and confidence
Clearly, ICT is at the centre of today’s healthcare delivery and so it will be expected that trainees will have very good knowledge in computer skills. There should be basic knowledge and confidence with the use of applications such as Microsoft Word and Excel to ensure that participants can take simple notes and undertake simple data entries.
Context Analysis -- 15 points total
•Issues related to resources
This shall be a very practical and trainee centered program that will require the availability of a lot of resources. Most of the resources are expected to be learning materials. Some of these include pamphlets, handouts, note books, flip charts, inks, textbooks and training kits. There shall be human resources, who shall come in as resource persons to share their knowledge and ideas with the trainees. A very special budgetary allocation shall, therefore, be done to ensure that all cost issues for the provision of resources are duly covered.
•Compatibility of learning site
Preferably, the learning or training site will be a health facility to ensure that there are hands on resources and facilities to use for the training. This will minimize the need for transportation of materials and resources from one place to another. This shall also create a very serene training atmosphere for trainees, most of whom are expected to be dealing with these institutions already.
•Feasibility of simulating practice setting
It will be possible to stimulate the practice setting, but this will certainly not come easily. This will come amidst a lot of cost to cater for the provision, improvisation and transportation of materials, equipment and other resources.
Task Analysis -- 60 points total
•Task listings for a given job - main tasks only
The major task listings include the care of patients through record keeping, record management, wound treatment, feedback to wound situation, administration of first aid, supervision of drug administration, and assistance to wounded patients.
•Frequency of task performance
Because this is training program and specially dedicated to equipping trainees with specific knowledge within a relatively shorter time frame, trainees will be expected to have a lot of interaction on the training program. This means that there shall be very frequent interaction with task performance.
•Difficulty of task performance
Generally, it is the aim of training to eradicate all forms of difficulty that trainees already have. This means that the training itself shall not be compounded with so much difficulty in the tasks to be performed. This shall be achieved by simplifying the various tasks to the barest minimum to make sure that tasks can be understood easily without so much effort.
•Task importance (consequence of inadequate performance)
Generally, the sequence shall be from personal care of wounds to documentations and so trainees are expected to master the practical tasks of giving care before coming to other aspects that deals with record keeping.
•Condition under which task is performed
Because of the setting selected, which is a health centre setting, the various tasks shall be performed under typical clinical conditions that have very few distractions from duty. It is also important to note that at the very beginning, there shall be a lot of mentorship in the training after which individual tasks shall be given. This means that there shall be both dependent and independent working conditions.
•Cues for task initiation and termination
The performance assessment program to be designed shall be the major source of determining the commencement and termination of tasks. Trainees who do not match up to a certain specified standard shall have to terminate the training.
•Task Analysis Flow Chart
1. Care giving
1.1 Assistance to patient
1.2 Wound dressing
1.3 Feedback on recovery
1.1.1 Identify patients in emergency situation
1.1.2 Prescribe needed assistance
1.1.3 Deliver specific assistance
1.2.1 Diagnose extent of injury
1.2.2 Give first aid
1.2.3 Dress up wound
1.3.1 Visit patient for feedback on recovery rate
Giving out the wrong prescription
2. Records keeping
2.1 Pretreatment Data
2.2 Treatment Data
2.3 Post Treatment Data
2.1.1 seek from patient basic health records
2.1.2 record data from patient into a system
2.2.1 Record medication and other forms of care accessories
2.3.1 record progress of patients recovery after visitation
Refusal to store information in a database thereby losing data
Adapted from Chapman (2005)
•Standards of task performance
It is expected that there will be immediate transfer of knowledge learnt and so the standard of the task performance shall be very high.
•References utilized in task performance
A lot of the task activity shall be based on primary source of data collection. However, secondary data shall occasionally be used. This means that reference shall often times be made to existing works of literature to enhance the progress and successful delivery of work.
•Tools/equipment utilized in task performance
Tools and equipment shall be hospital based. Very little room shall be made for improvisation except in extreme cases because the major idea behind the program is to equip trainees with hands on performance rate that can be measured readily as they assume post.
•Outputs (results) of task performance
As indicated earlier, this shall take the form of formal training and so a lot of room shall be made for assessment and evaluation. It has also been indicated that the progress of trainees is going to be monitored and fed back to them. This means that a lot of good shall be made of results to be obtained from the task performance of individual trainees.
•Problems that may result from poor task performance and their resolution
Health related tasks of this nature deal directly with human lives. This means that very little room shall be created to tolerate under performance and poor performance. Poor task performance shall be of great risk to output recipients of the training program. This way, only limited improvement chance shall be given to those who perform poorly. If after the grace period their performance still does not improve, they shall be shown the exit.
•Human interfaces during the task
The training shall be based on the mentee-mentor relationship. This means that the major stakeholders shall be facilitators and recipients.
•System interfaces during task performance
There shall not be complicated system interfaces where by the major system requirements shall be those that deal directly with data entry, records keeping, researching and notes keeping (Cottrell, 2011).
•Personnel safety considerations
Personal safety issues cut across three major dimensions. These are safety of facilitators, safety of trainees and safety of trail patients. A special personal safety seminar shall, therefore, be conducted to ensure that all people concerned live within the safety net.
•Required skills and knowledge for adequate task performance
Basic skills in health care delivery with a minimum of academic studies in secondary level health science shall be a requirement to understand the basics of the task performance and to be able to follow up carefully and in a precise manner.
•Required skills and knowledge for exemplary task performance
Exemplary task shall be delivered on people who are not directly part of the trainees and so there shall not be a clear cut skills requirement for them. The major expectation from them shall be for them to live within safety rules and regulations (Bridgeway, 2010).
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